теор.фонетика шпоры



20.THE SUBSYSTEMS OF UTTERANCE PROSODY.UNITS OF ITS ANALYSIS.

The pitch component of intonation or speech melody is the variations in the pitch of the voice which take place with voiced sounds. It is present in every word (inherent prominence) and in the whole sentence, because it serves to delimit sentences into sense groups, or intonation groups. The delimitative (constitutive) function of melody is performed by pitch variations jointly with pausation, because each sentence is divided into intonation groups (on the auditory and acoustic level) or into sense groups (on the semantic level).

To describe the melody of an utterance it is necessary to determine the relevant pitch levels, pitch ranges, directions and rate of pitch movement in each intonation group.

The pitch l e v e l of the whole utterance (or intonation group) is determined by the pitch of its highest—pitched syllable. It shows the degree of semantic importance the speaker attaches to the utterance (or intonation group) in comparison with any other utterance (or intonation group), and also the speaker’s attitude and emotions.

The number of linguistically relevant pitch levels in English has not been definitely established yet: in the works of different phoneticians it varies from three to seven. In unemphatic speech most phoneticians distinguish 3 pitch levels: low, mid and high. These levels are relative and are produced on different registers depending on the individual peculiarities of the voice.

The pitch range of an utterance is the interval between its highest-pitched syllable and its lowest—pitched syllable. According to circumstances the speaker changes his voice range. It may be widened and narrowed to express emphasis or the speaker’s attitudes and emotions. For example, if «Very good» is pronounced with a narrow (high) range it sounds less enthusiastic. Pronounced with a tow narrow range it sounds sincere, but not emotional. If said with a wide range it sounds both sincere and enthusiastic.

Most phoneticians distinguish three pitch ranges — wide, mid and narrow.

The rate of pitch variations may be different depending on the time, during which these variations take place, and on the range of the variations. Differences in the rate of pitch variations are semantically important. When the rate of the fall is fast, the falling tone sounds more categoric and definite than when the rate of the fall is slow.

The basic unit used to describe the pitch component is the ton e. Depending on whether the pitch of the voice varies or remains unvaried tones are subdivided into kinetic and static. Static tones may have different pitch level of the voice — the high static tone, the mid static tone, the low static tone. The differentiation of kinetic tones as high falling and low falling, high rising and low rising, etc. is also based on the differentiation of the pitch level of their initial and final points.

As to the direction of pitch movement, kinetic tones are subdivided into simple and complex. Simple tones are unidirectional: the falling and the rising tones. Complex tones are bidirectional: the falling—rising tone, the rising-falling tone, and the rising-falling-rising tone.

25. TYPES OF UTTERANCE STRESS. FACTORS CONDITIONING THE LOCATION OF UTTERANCE STRESS.

The subsystem of utterance stress includes 3 basic functional types: nuclear stress, non-nuclear full stress & partial stress. The main difference between these 3 types is the difference in how the syllables that bear them are marked. The nuclear syllable is in most cases marked by a kinetic tone & is, therefore, perceived as the most prominent. Non-nuclear fully stressed syllables are more often marked by static tones.Both are pitch prominent, both initiate tones. Partially stressed syllables are not pitch prominent, they do not initiate tones & their pitch characteristics depend on the pitch pattern of the preceding fully stressed syllables. Each of the above 3 types of stress has functionally significant degrees depending on the modal-stylistic factors of speech.

The distribution of stresses in an utterance depends on several factors. G. Torsuyev points to the following factors: semantic, grammatical and rhythmical. The crucial factor in determining the location, type & degree of stress in an utterance is the semantic factor. The semantic center of the utterance is singled out by the nuclear stress. This type of stress is opposed to the non-nuclear stresses by its greatest semantic importance. In their turn non-nuclear full stresses signal greater semantic value of the words than partial stresses. Notional words, due to their function in the language, are predisposed to be stressed in an utterance. Form words are likely to be unstressed. The grammatical structure of the utterance also determines its accentual structure. For instance, the inverted word order for expressing interrogation requires stress on the auxiliary verb. The distribution of stresses is also affected by the rhythmical laws of the English language. Due to the rhythmical organization of the utterance notional words may be unstressed & form words may be stressed.

The semantic, grammatical & rhythmical factors are closely connected with one another, the semantic factor being the main one.

28. The phonetic nature and types of speech rhythm in different languages. Peculiarities of speech rhythm in English.

An essential feature of connected speech is that the peaks of prominence — the stressed syllables — are inseparably connected with non-prominent syllables. The latter are attached to the stressed syllables, they never exist by themselves. The simplest example of a close relationship between the stressed and unstressed syllables is a polysyllabic word-utterance which is a phonetic and semantic entity incapable of division, e.g.: `Excellent. To`morrow. `Certainly. Thus an utterance is split into groups of syllables unified by a stressed syllable, i.e. stress-groups, each of which is a semantic unit — generally a word, often more than a word.An important feature of English pronunciation is that the prominent syllables in an utterance occur at approximately equal periods of time. It means more or less equal time for each of the stressed groups: I’d ‘like to ‘give you a ‘piece of ad`vice. When the number of syllables in adjacent stress-groups is not equal, the speed of utterance will be the highest in the group having the largest number of syllables and, vice versa, the tempo is noticeably slower in a group having fewer syllables. Thus the perceptible isochrony of stress-groups is based on the speakers tending to minimize the differences in the length of stressed groups in an utterance.

Thus it has been shown that stress in English performs an important function of ‘organizing’ an utterance, providing the basis for its r h у t h m i с structure which is the realization of rhythm as a prosodic feature of speech.

Rhythm is defined in different languages in largely the same terms. The notion of rhythm implies, first of all, a certain periodicity of phonological events. For an English utterance these events, as has been made clear, are the stressed syllables. Such a periodicity is a peculiarity of English. English speech is therefore often described as more ‘rhythmic’ than, for example, Russian.

It follows that the units of the rhythmic organization of an utterance are stress-groups, which may be as well called rhythmic groups.

13.EMERGANCE OF A PRONOUNCIATION STANDART.RP.

The orthoepic norm of a language is the standard pronounciation adopted by native speakers as the right and proper way of speaking.There are theree main conditions that are necessary for a variety of pronunciation to be acceptes as a norm:wide currency(wide usage in actual speech),conformity to the main phonetic tendencies(reflection of the main phonetic tendencies),social acceptability (still,it is usually used by the most educated part of the population).The orthoepic norm of British English is RP.It was accepted as a phonetic norm of English about a century ago and is based mainly on the Southern English regional type of pronounciation.It used to be the languge of the most privileged education in Br.-public schools.However,nowadays RP differs from the RP used a century ,or so ,ago.

Main changes which took place:1.The diphtongization of /i:/ and /u:/ which in final position are often prounounced with a glide :”see ”as /sij/,”who”…2.Monophtongization of /ai/ and/ au/ when followed by /e/ :tower -/taue/=/tae/.3.The centering of former /ou/ to /3u/:earlier ‘N/ou/vember’ –now ‘N/3u/vember’.The same with the word ‘home’.

4.weakening of vovels in a stressed syllable: /i/-/e/:’b/e/live ‘ for ‘b/i/liv.’

5.The assimilation of the sounds: /sj/ to /ш/,/zj/ to /ж/,

/tj/ to /тш/,/dj/ to/дж/ (e.g. issue,education,situation).

6.The final /b,d,g,/ are partially devoiced.7.The use of intruseve /r/(the idea/r/of,drama/r/and music.Still many people in GB don’t speak the RP but Standart Eng. (Standart Eng.-is accepted as a form of Eng. which implies its vocabylary and syntax rather than pronunciation and enunciation)with a regional type of pronounciation.

16.THE SYLLABLE AS A PROSODIC UNITE.WORD STRESS,ITS NATURE & FUNCTIONS.

Syllable is a double-faced category: segmental and non segmental (or suprasegmental,or prosodic).Supra-segmental features of speech:it’s linguistic interpretation of the acoustic and perceptible prosodic features of speech:tempo,stress,rhytm,pausation,speech timbre,speech melody.

The term Stress is used in 2 different ways: one is as a conventional label for the overall prominence of certain syllables over others.Second (narrower) is concerned with the way in which a speaker usually achive this impression of prominence:pstchologecal case.Word stress should not be confused with utterance stress .Utter. stress is subjective(belongs to situation,linguistic context,e.g. “UnHappy”,but “She’s so unHappy”),when the word stress is conditioned by objective factors (prononciation tendencies,orthoepic norm).Word stress ocuur in monosyllabic and polysyllabic words.In polysullabic words with several stresses there is

a correlation of gegrees of prominence of the syllables which is called the stress pattern of the word (or the accentual structure of the word).

Acoustic analysis shows that the perception of prominence of the syllable may be due to different variations of the following accoustic parameters:intensity,duration,frequency,formant structure = physical correlations of loudness,length,pitch and quality respectively.In different l-s stress may be achieved by dofferent combinations of this parameters:

1.l-s with dynamic word stress(stress is acieved by a greater force of ariculation,which results in greater loudness).

2.l-s with musical word stress(the prominence is achieved by variations in pitch level –Chinese,Japanese).

3.l-s with quantitative word stress(prom. Is achieved by the duration of the sound;stressed vowls are always longer than unstressed-Russian).English word stress is of a complex structure(earlier was considered to be dynamic(loudness)).Nowadays the stress is considered to manifest itself in different ways:the intensity or duration of the stressed syllable may increase,or the spectrum of stressed vowel may be sharpened,or there may be a combination of this parameters.

Linguistically relevant types of word stress.Actually, the word have as many degrees of prominence as there are syllables in it.But not all of them are linguistically relevant.which of them are ling relevant?There are 2 views on this matter.

1.Jones,Kingdon,Vassilyev.There are 3 degrees of word-stress in English:primary(strong),secondary (partial),weak (unstressed syllables).All these degrees are linguistically important,because there are words in English which meanings depend upon the occurrence of either of the three degrees in their stress patterns( Import-impOrt,certification-cerTIfication).

2.american linguists(Trager,Hill).

Distinguish 4 degrees of stress:primary (cUpboard),secondary(discriminAtion),tertiary stress (Analyse),weak stress(cupboard),which often left unmarked.Secondary stress usually occur before the primary str.(examinAtion),while tertiary –after it(spEcialize).Linguistically tertiary stress can be taken for a variant of secondary word stress,that’s why the stress pattern of English words may be defined as correlation of 3 degrees of stress.

3.THE PHONEME AS A LINGUISTIC UNITE.ITS DEFINITION & FUNCTIONS.

The phoneme — the smallest linguistically relevant unit of the sound structure of a given language which serves to distinguish one word from another. The phoneme is a minimal abstract linguistic unit realized in speech in the form of speech sounds opposable to other phonemes of the same language to distinguish the meaning of morphemes and words.

Firstly, the phoneme is a functional unit .In phonetics function is usually understood as a role of the various units of the phonetic system in distinguishing one morpheme from another, one word from another or one utterance from another. The opposition of phonemes in the same phonetic environment differentiates the meaning of morphemes and words: e.g. bath-path, light-like. Sometimes the opposition of phonemes serves to distinguish the meaning of the whole phrases: He was heard badly — He was hurt badly. Thus we may say that the phoneme can fulfill the distinctive function.

Secondly, the phoneme is material, real and objective. That means it is realized in speech in the form of speech sounds, its allophones. The phonemes constitute the material form of morphemes, so this function may be called constitutive function.

Thirdly, the phoneme performs the recognitive function, because the use of the right allophones and other phonetic units facilitates normal recognition. We may add that the phoneme is a material and objective unit as well as an abstract and generalized one at the same time.

Basic functions of the phoneme are:

1. Constitutive – phoneme constitutes words, word combinations etc.

2. Distinctive – phoneme helps to distinguish the meanings of words, morphemes

3. Recognitive – phoneme makes up grammatical forms of words, sentences, so the right use of allophones .

7.THE DISTINCTIVE & NON0DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS.

Each phoneme is characterized by a certain number of phonologically relevant features, which are its constant distinctive features (as they distinguish the phoneme from all the other phonemes of the language). Each allophone of a certain phoneme is characterized by definite phonologically relevant features(which are common to all its allophones) plus a number of irrelevant, or incidental, features( which distinguish the allophone from all the other allophones of the phoneme). The phonologically relevant features are normally identified by opposing one phoneme to every other phoneme in the language. But there often occur difficulties, which can be overcome with the aid of physiological and acoustic analyses.

10.TYPES OF PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION.

The problem of representing speech visually is studied by phonology. This problem is closely connected with the problems of phonological analyses because any system of writing is not a simple record of speech utterances, it is also a generalization about them. A transcription, which is a visual system of notation of the sound structure of speech, is also a generalization of a great variety of sounds that are uttered by speakers of a given language. The extent of the generalization may vary. One can classify the sounds into phonemes disregarding the different degrees of aspiration, labialization, length, palatalization and other phonologically irrelevant features of the sounds. On the other hand, one can differentiate between all those features and classify them as well. Consequently, there may be different types of transcriptions depending upon the degree of exactness required.

Phonemic(broad) transcription provides each phoneme with a distinctive symbol to avoid ambiguity. It contains as many symbols as there are phonemes in the language. The phonetic data is usually enclosed between virgules which are also called diagonals.

Phonetic(narrow) transcription provides either different symbols for each allophone, or introduce special marks (diacritic marks)to represent the different features of the allophones. The phonetic data is customarily enclosed in square brackets. The modern phonetic transcription that is most widely used now is the International Phonetic Transcription devised by the Phonetic association in 1904. This transcription is a phonemic alphabet which may be applied to most of the languages. That’s why it contains symbols that stand for phonemes in different languages. For this reason the transcription is often referred to as the ‘universal transcription’ of the International Phonetic Association. One of the principles of this transcription is to use the fewest possible symbols of the simplest possible shape. Most of the symbols it uses are the letters of the Latin alphabet. Besides it contains a series of diacritic marks.

Phonology has developed rapidly and made a profound study of the functions of sounds in most of the living languages. But so far it has not as yet fully examined the functions of most of the prosodic features, such as speech melody, tempo of speech, rhythm and others. Scholars begin to tackle these and similar problems of intonology.

19.PROSODY & INTONATION. UTTERANCE PROSODY & UNITES OF ITS ANALYSIS.

Intonation is a language universal. There are no languages which are spoken without any change of prosodic parameters but intonation functions in various languages in a different way.

There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.

The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R. Kingdon, J. O’Connor, A. Gimson and others. It is traditional and widely used. According to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). Their theory is based on the assumption that intonation consists of basic functional «blocks». They pay much attention to these «blocks» but not to the way they are connected. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superimposed on the lexico-grammatical structure. In fact the aim of communication determines the intonation structure, not vice versa.

The grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. Halliday. The main unit of intonation is a clause. Intonation is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality marks the beginning and the end of a tone-group. Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. Tone is the third unit in Halliday’s system. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the attitude of the speaker. Hallyday’s theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation.

The founder of the American school of intonation K. Pike in his book «The Intonation of American English» considers «pitch phonemes» and «contours» to be the main units of intonation. He describes different contours and their meanings, but the word «meaning» stands apart from communicative function of intonation.

There is wide agreement among Russian linguists that on perception level intonation is a complex, a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and tempo closely related. Some Russian linguists regard speech timbre as the fourth component of intonation. Neither its material form nor its linguistic function has been thoroughly described. Though speech timbre definitely conveys certain shades of attitudinal or emotional meaning there is no good reason to consider it alongside with the three prosodic components of intonation, i.e. pitch, loudness and tempo.

M. Sokolova and others write that the term prosody embraces the three prosodic components and substitutes the term intonation. It is widely used in linguistic literature, it causes no misunderstanding and, consequently, it is more adequate. They feel strongly that this term would be more suitable for their book too, but, unfortunately, it has not been accepted in the teaching process yet.

Many foreign scholars (A. Gimson, R. Kingdon) restrict the formal definition of intonation to pitch movement alone, though occasionally allowing in variations of loudness as well. According to D. Crystal, the most important prosodic effects are those conveyed by the linguistic use of pitch movement, or melody. It is clearly not possible to restrict the term intonation by the pitch parameters only because generally all the three prosodic parameters function as a whole though in many cases the priority of the pitch parameter is quite evident.

There is no general agreement about either the number or the headings of the functions of intonation which can be illustrated by the difference in the approach to the subject by some prominent Russian phoneticians. T.M. Nikolayeva names three functions of intonation: delimitating, integrating and semantic. L.K. Tseplitis suggests the semantic, syntactic and stylistic functions the former being the primary and the two latter being the secondary functions. N.V. Cheremisina singles out the following main functions of intonation: communicative, distinctive (or phonological), delimitating, expressive, appellative, aesthetic, integrating. Other Russian and foreign phoneticians also display some difference in heading the linguistic functions of intonation.

D. Crystal distinguishes the following functions of intonation.

• Emotional function’s most obvious role is to express attitudinal meaning -sarcasm, surprise, reserve, impatience, delight, shock, anger, interest, and thousands of other semantic nuances.

• Grammatical function helps to identify grammatical structure in speech, performing a role similar to punctuation. Units such as clause and sentence often depend on intonation for their spoken identity, and several specific contrasts, such as question/statement, make systematic use of it.

• Informational function helps draw attention to what meaning is given and what is new in an utterance. The word carrying the most prominent tone in a contour signals the part of an utterance that the speaker is treating as new information.

• Textual function helps larger units of meaning than the sentence to contrast and cohere. In radio news-reading, paragraphs of information can be shaped through the use of pitch. In sports commentary, changes in prosody reflect the progress of the action.

• Psychological function helps us to organize speech into units that are easier to perceive and memorize. Most people would find a sequence of numbers, for example, difficult to recall. The task is made easier by using intonation to chunk the sequence into two units.

• Indexical function, along with other prosodic features, is an important marker of personal or social identity. Lawyers, preachers, newscasters, sports commentators, army sergeants, and several other occupations are readily identified through their distinctive prosody.

Components of intonation and the structure of English intonation group.

Let us consider the components of intonation.

In the pitch component we may consider the distinct variations in the direction of pitch, pitch level and pitch range.

According to R. Kingdon the most important nuclear tones in English are: Low Fall, High Fall, Low Rise, High Rise, and Fall-Rise.

The meanings of the nuclear tones are difficult to specify in general terms. Roughly speaking the falling tone of any level and range expresses certainty, completeness, and independence. A rising tone on the contrary expresses uncertainty, incompleteness or dependence. A falling-rising tone may combine the falling tone’s meaning of assertion, certainty with the rising tone’s meaning of dependence, incompleteness. At the end of a phrase it often conveys a feeling of reservation; that is, it asserts something and at the same time suggests that there is something else to be said. At the beginning or in the middle of a phrase it is a more forceful alternative to the rising tone, expressing the assertion of one point, together with the implication that another point is to follow. The falling-rising tone, as its name suggests, consists of a fall in pitch followed by a rise. If the nucleus is the last syllable of the intonation group the fall and rise both take place on one syllable. In English there is often clear evidence of an intonation-group boundary, but no audible nuclear tone movement preceding. In such a circumstance two courses are open: either one may classify the phenomenon as a further kind of head or one may consider it to be the level nuclear tone. Low Level tone is very characteristic of reading poetry. Mid-Level tone is particularly common in spontaneous speech functionally replacing the rising tone. There are two more nuclear tones in English: Rise-Fall and Rise-Fall-Rise. But adding refinement to speech they are not absolutely essential tones for the foreign learner to acquire. Rise-Fall can always be replaced by High Fall and Rise-Fall-Rise by Fall-Rise without making nonsense of the utterance.

According to D. Crystal, there are nine ways of saying Yes as an answer to the question Will you marry me?

1. Low fall. The most neutral tone; a detached, unemotional statement of fact.

2. Full fall. Emotionally involved; the higher the onset of the tone, the more involved the speaker; choice of emotion (surprise, excitement, irritation) depends on the speaker’s facial expression.

3. Mid fall. Routine, uncommitted comment; detached and unexcited.

4. Low rise. Facial expression important; with a ‘happy’ face, the tone is sympathetic and friendly; with a ‘grim’ face, it is guarded and

22.THE STRUCTURE OF A PROSODIC CONTOUR IN ENGLISH. THE FUNCTIONS OF ITS ELEMENTS.

The structure of the intonation group varies depending on the number of syllables and rhythmic unites in it. Minimally, it consists of one (stressed) syllable – the nucleus. Maximally, it contains the prehead, the head, the nucleus and the tail.



The functional role of some of these elements is indisputable. The most conspicuous is the functional role of the nucleus: its prosodic features express communicative and attitudinal meanings, indicate the end of the intonation group.different types of head convey attitudinal meanings. Types of prehead differentiate emotional meanings.

The Head is viewed as one melodic shape, one part of the pitch contour of the utterance. It acts as a unite independent of the nucleus. The functions of the head are to express relations between its constituent unites – rhythmic groups and to convey modal-stylistic meanings. It can also predict the communicative type of utterance. Phoneticians classify heads in different ways, but it seems more logical to classify head patterns og English into 3 major types, falling, rising and level. As to the pitch movement within each rhythmic unite og the head there are 3 subtypes of the falling head:stepping, sliding, descending; 2 types of the rising head: ascending and scandent; 2 types of the level head: high and low.

The Prehead is normally pronounced on the low or mid pitch level. If it is pronounced on a pitch somewhat higher or lower than the utterance acquires emphasis and emotional connotations.

It is also disputable that the tail is an independent functional element of the intonation group, since its pitch variations are determined by the nuclear tone. The tail is descending when it continues the fall of the nucleus. It may be level, when the fall of the nucleus reaches the lowest level or when the tail continues the mid-level pitch of the nucleus. The tail is ascending when it is part of the rising or falling-rising terminal tomes. So the tail is not an independent element of the utterance. It should be treated as a constituent element of the terminal tone.

The prehead, head and tail are non-obligatory elements of an intonation group, whereas the nucleus is an obligatory and the most important functional element.

26. SPEECH RHYTHM AND UTTERANCE STRESS.

An essential feature of connected speech is that the peaks of prominence — the stressed syllables — are inseparably connected with non-prominent syllables. The latter are attached to the stressed syllables, they never exist by themselves. The simplest example of a close relationship between the stressed and unstressed syllables is a polysyllabic word-utterance which is a phonetic and semantic entity incapable of division, e.g.:`Excellent. To`morrow. `Certainly.

Thus an utterance is split into groups of syllables unified by a stressed syllable, i.e. stress-groups, each of which is a semantic unit — generally a word, often more than a word.

An important feature of English pronunciation is that the prominent syllables in an utterance occur at approximately equal periods of time. It means more or less equal time for each of the stressed groups: I’d ‘like to ‘give you a ‘piece of ad`vice. When the number of syllables in adjacent stress-groups is not equal, the speed of utterance will be the highest in the group having the largest number of syllables and, vice versa, the tempo is noticeably slower in a group having fewer syllables. Thus the perceptible isochrony of stress-groups is based on the speakers tending to minimize the differences in the length of stressed groups in an utterance.

Thus it has been shown that stress in English performs an important function of ‘organizing’ an utterance, providing the basis for its r h у t h m i с structure which is the realization of rhythm as a prosodic feature of speech.

Rhythm is defined in different languages in largely the same terms. The notion of rhythm implies, first of all, a certain periodicity of phonological events. For an English utterance these events, as has been made clear, are the stressed syllables. Such a periodicity is a peculiarity of English. English speech is therefore often described as more ‘rhythmic’ than, for example, Russian.

It follows that the units of the rhythmic organization of an utterance are stress-groups, which may be as well called rhythmic groups.

The distribution of stresses in an utterance is also affected by the rhythmical laws of the English English language. Due to the rhythmical organization of the utterance notional words may be unstressesunstressed, and form words, on the contrary, may be stressed.

The semantic, grammatical and rhythmical factors are closely connected with one another, the semantic semantic factor being the main one.

30.THE NOTION OF SPEECH STYLE. PHONETIC STYLE-FORMING MEANS IN ENGLISH.

A number of functional styles: publicistic style, newspaper style, the style of official documents.

The main circumstances of reality that cause phonetic modifications in speech are as follows:

the aim of speech

the extent of spontaneity of speech

the use of a form of speech which may either suggest only listening, or both listening and exchange of remarks

social and psychological factors

These are extra linguistic factors.

Phonetic style is a different ways of pronunciation, caused by extra linguistic factors and characterized by definite features.

The degree of assimilation, reduction and elision may serve to distinguish phonetic styles.

Besides these segmental features, there are prosodic features which enable people to distinguish between different phonetic styles.

Each speaker has a norm of loudness. Each speaker has a norm of speech tempo as well. Pauses also help to distinguish different varieties of speech.

Each style of pronunciation is characterized by a relatively high proportion of definite segmental and prosodic features which are not typical of other styles.

12.THEORIES OF SYLLABLE FORMATION & DIVISION.

1.Chest –puls theory(Stetson):syllable=chest pulse.Each syllable corresponds to a chest(breath)-pulse .The number of pulses corresponds to the number of vowels (there are as many chest –pulses as there are vowels).

2.The relative sonority theory(Jespersen):sounds group themselves according to their sonority;the most sonorous sounds are vowels,less sonorous-are sonorants /w,j,r,m,n,ή/,and the least sonorous are the noise consonants.Sounds are grouped around the most sonorous ones (vowels),which form the peak of sonority in a stllable.One peak of sonority is separated from another by sounds of lower sonority(cons.)The distance between the 2 points of lower sonority is a syllable.(“melt”- 1 peak =1 syllable),( “metal”-2 peaks =2 syllables).3.Muscular tension theory(Scherba):syllable is characterized by variations of muscular tension .The energy of articulation increases at the beginning of a syllable,reaches its maximum with the vowel and decreases towards the end of the syllable.So a syll.is an arc of muscular tension.The boundaries occur when the articulatory energy is the lowest.There are as many syllable as there are maxima of muscular tension. (tar-tower(reduced variant) =/ta:/,in the second case /a/ is prononced with 2 articulatory efforts =2 syllables).Scherba divides consonants into 3 groups:

1. initially weak,or finally strong:occur at the beginnig of the syllable.

2.Initially strong,or finally weak:occur at the end of the syllable.

3.a consonants in an intervocalic position:after a strong stressed vowel (like in the word ‘money’ which is double peaked).

14.NATIONAL & REGIONAL VARIANTS OF ENGLISH PRONOUNCIATION.

The varieties that are spoken by a cocially limited number of people used in certain localities are called dialects.There are social and regional dialects.There are also innumerable individual differences –ideolectical diff-ces.Diallects hve some peculiarities in pronunciation,vocabulary ang grammar structure.But nowadays (due to mass media) the differences between dialects are less marked.Among the most well-known dialects are Cockney ,Geordie (in Newcastle),Scouse (Liverpool dialect),Cornish (in Cornwall).Nowadays the variety of local diallects is reduced to more or less general regional types.Three main regional types in GB: Southern,Nothern and Scottish.The main distinctions of the Nortern type of Eng.pronunciation ,as opposed to RP:1./ǽ/ is more open and more retracted back (“bad,back”).2./a:/ is fronted,approximates to /ǽ/ in worda which do not contain /r/in spelling (“glass”,”after”).3./u/ is used to /Λ/ (cup,love,much).4./e/ or /3/ to /ei/(may,say,take).5./ou/ pron. as /o:/(go,home)6.All tones are drawled and the speech is generally slower than in Southern Eng.The Low Rising is used much oftener than in RP.

The Scottish Type distinctions:1. Instead of /3:/ they use /ir/,/er/ or /Λr/(/bird,herd,ward/=bird heard,word).2./u/ is used instead of /au/ (down= /dun/)3.do not distinguish between /a/ and /ǽ/ (“bad,path,grass,dance” may be pronounced with ether /a/ or /ǽ/.4.All vowels are short(no distinction between short and long ones)-(e.g. “pool” and “pool”).But still,the vowels in inflected words are not as short as in non-inflected (‘greed-agreed’).5./r/ is an alveolar flap not only between and before vowels(‘hurry’),but also after vowels (‘word’).6.Existence of the fricative sound /X/ ,which remainds russian (‘loch’).(Intonation:Special questions may end with a high level tone aftre a fall on the interrogative words).

Cockney (an ex. of local diallect):1.diphtong/ei/ reminds /ai/(‘take,late’).2. /ǽ/ sounds like /3/ (‘bag’)3./ou/like /ǽu/ (‘potatoes’).4./p,t,k/ are heavily aspirated.5./h/ does not occur,it may appear only in stressed position(‘his,her,happen’).6..final/ή/ sounds like /n/(‘something’). 7./θ/and /δ/ do not ocuur./f,v,d/ are used instead (‘this’=/dis/,’father’=/fave/).

8.the glottal stop is often heard intesd of /p,t,k/(“I hope so”=/ aiǽu sǽu/).

17.THE ACCENTUAL TENDENCIES IN ENGLISH.BASIC WORD STRESS PATTERNS.

There exist languages where stress always falls on the first (Finnish) or on the last syllable(French).Word stress in such languages is fixed.English stress is free as it is not fixed to any particular syllable in all words of language.The most productive types of stress patterns (as all borrowings and new words usually are stress accodingly) are:words with 1 primary stress (after),with 2 primary stresses (week-end),words with 1 primary and 1 secondary stresses (magazine).

Though English word stress is free,there exist certain tendencies,which regulate the accentuation of words.Two main are recessive tendency and rhythmic tendency.

1The recessive tendency:stress falls on the first syllable which is generally the root one(mother,father,window) or on the 2 syllable in the words with a prefix of no special meaning(become,indeed,forgive).This tendency is a characteristic of Anglo-saxon words,though it has influenced many foreign words.

2.rhythmic tendency:the tendency to alternate stressed and unstressed syllables in monosyllabic words.According to it the stress is on the 3-rd syllable from the end(intensity,possibility).

In words with more than 4 syllables we very often find a tendency of combining this 2 tendencies(ineffIciency,physiOlogy,phonolOgical).The rhythmic tendency is strong,but however there’s nowadays another tendency-to avoid a succession of weak syllables.As a result,there appeared a stress shift with a rhythmic alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables(Exquisit or exqUisit,hOspitable or hospItable,cApitalis or capItalist).Another tendency is to retain the stress in derivatives (nation-nAtionality).This tendency is called Retentive tendency.

3.There’s one more tendency-to stress most important elements in words:negative prefixes “-un”,”-in”,”-mis”;prefixes “ex-”,”-vice”,”-sub”,”under-“;suffex “-teen”,semantically important words in compound words (bad-tempered,well-known).

2.ARTICULATORY CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS.

Speech sounds are acoustic effects of the articulatory movements and positions of the human speech organs. The articulation of every speech sound and the transition from the articulation of one sound to the articulation of the sound follows are effected and controlled by the action of the muscles situated in the organs of speech involved. These muscles are activated(contracted and relaxed) by impulses sent from the brain along the efferent nerves.

Vowels

The various qualities of English vowels are determined by the oral resonator- its size, volume and shape. The resonator is modified by the most movable speech organs- the tongue and the lips.The quality of a vowel also depends on whether the speech organs are tense or lax and whether the force of the articulation weakens or is stable. The position of the speech organs in the articulation of vowels may be kept for a variable period of time. All this factors predetermine the principles according to which vowels are classified:

according to the horizontal movement of the tongue Eng. vowels are classified into

-front

-front-retracted

-mixed

-back advanced

according to the vertical movement of the tongue: close(high), mid and open(low). Soviet phoneticians Torsuev, Trakhterov and Vasiliev classify these sounds in a more precise manner subdividing each class( close, mid and open) into a narrow and broad variation. Their classification reflects the distinctive differences in the quality of the historically long and historically short vowels.

according to the position of the lips(whether they are rounded, spread or neutral): rounded or unrounded

according to the degree of muscular tension: tense and lax. All the long vowels are believed to be tense, while all the short-lax.

according to the force of the articulation at the end of the vowel: free and checked. Free vowels are pronounced in an open syllable with a weakening in the force of articulation towards their end.(monophthongs, diphthongs, unstressed short vowels)Checked vowels are those in the articulation of which there is no weakening of the force of the articulation and they’re followed by the consonant that checks them.(short vowels under stress)

according to the stability of articulation: monophthongs, diphthongs, thongoids (diphthongized vowels)

-according to the length of the vowel: long and short. The length is historical. It differs from the positional length of the same vowels.

Consonants

An indispensable constituent of a consonant is noise. The source of noise is an obstruction. Types of obs-ion in the production of the consonants: 1) complete occlusion(closure) 2) constriction(narrowing) 3) occlusion-constriction(closure immediately followed by a constriction). The noise produced by the removal of the closure is that of a plosion, the noise resulting from the movement of the air stream in the narrowing is that of friction. The two effects are combined when closure is followed by a narrowing.

according to the type of obstruction and the manner of the production of noise: occlusives(stops{p,b,t,d,k,g} and nasal sonants), constrictives(fricatives(unicentral, bicentral), oral sonants(medial[j,r,w], lateral[l])), occlusive-constrictives (affricate)

Obstruction may be formed either by two active speech organs or by one active sp.org. and a passive organ of speech.

according to the active speech organ which forms an obstruction: labial(bilabial[p,b,m,w], labio-dental[v,f]), lingual(forelingual(apical and cacuminal[r]), medio-lingual[j], backlingual), pharyngeal[h]

according t the place of obstruction: dental, alveolar[t,d,n.l.s,z], palatal[j], palate-alveolar, velar.

according to the presence or absence of voice: voiced and voiceless

according to the force of the articulation: fortis(the muscular tension is strong) and lenis(the musc.tens.-weak)

according to the position of the soft palate: oral and nasal.

18.SPEECH PROSODY.ITS PERCEPTIBLE QUALITIES & ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES.

The functions and meanings of prosody should be described with reference to the utterance as the basic communicative unit. The prosody of an utterance (intonation) carries independent meanings of its own, regardless of the words and the grammatical structure of the utterance.

The prosody of the utterance is polysemantic. Due to its structural complexity it can express a number of different meanings of interrogation, non-finality, uncertainty, non—categoric attitude, surprise, etc. The inherent meanings of prosody which are of a general character (such as definiteness — uncertainty, assertiveness — reservations, separateness — connectedness, etc.) are specified and concretized when interacting with the grammatical and lexical meanings of the utterance. There may be cases of correlation and harmony between the inherent meanings of prosody and the meanings of words and grammatical structures as well as disbalance and disharmony. For example, «lt may be/So» (But I’m not quite sure). The falling—rising tone is in harmony with the modal verb. Whereas in «It may be so» (I’m absolutely sure about it) the falling tone makes the statement sound categoric. Or agajn, the meanings of the prosodic structures in the utterances «I like that» and «Clever ‘aren’t you?» with the challenging or antagonistic Rise—Fall are opposite to the meaning of the words. Intonation gives greater precision and point to the meaning. It provides important information which is not contained in any of the other features of utterance. Hence the role of utterance prosody in communication.

FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY

1. The constitutive function is to form utterances as communicative units. Prosody unifies words into utterances, thus giving the latter the final form without which they cannot exist. A succession of words arranged syntactically is not a communicative unit until a certain prosodic pattern is attached to it. E.G. «Pete has left for Leningrad» is not a communicative unit until it is pronounced , i.e. until it acquires a certain pitch—and— stress pattern. Prosody is the only language device that transform words as vocabulary items into comnunicative units — utterances. In written speech prosodic features are to some extent indicated by punctuation marks, e.g. «Fire!» is a command or an exclamation, depending on the situation in which it occurs, «Fire?» — a question, «Fire». — a. statement.

Prosody forms all communicative types of utterances — statements, questions, imperatives, exclamations and modal (attitudinal) types: — e.g. categoric statements, non-categoric, perfunctory statements, quizzical statements, certainty and uncertainty questions, insistent questions, etc. In constituting an utterance, prosody at the same time performs the segmentative and de limitative function. It segments connected discourse into utterances and intonation groups, and simultaneously delimits them one from another, showing relations between them. It also signals the semantic nucleus and other semantically important words of an utterance (or an intonation group). Prosody also constitutes phonetic styles of speech

2. The distinctive function of prosody manifests itself in several particular functions, depending on the meaning which is differentiated. These are communicative—distinctive, modal-distinctive, culminative («theme— rheme») distinctive, syntactical — distinctive and stylistic—distinctive functions.

The communicative —distinctive function is to differentiate the communicative types of utterances, i.e. statements, questions, exclamations, imperatives, and communicative subtypes: within statements — statesments proper, answers, announcements, etc.; within questions — first instance questions, repeated questions, echo questions; within imperatives — commands, requests and so on.

The modal-distinctive (attitudinal-distinctive) function of prosody manifests itself in differentiating modal meanings of utterances (such as certainty versus uncertainty, definiteness versus indefiniteness) and the speaker’s attitudes (for instance, a reserved, dispassionate versus involved, interested attitude, or antagonistic versus friendly attitude and so on). Into this function some phoneticians include differentiation of the speaker’s emotions, the emotional function.

The culminative — distinctive function of prosody manifests itself in differentiating the location of the semantic nucleus of utterances and other semantically important words. This function is often called logical, predicative and accentual.

The adherents to the theory of «sentence perspective» claim that in this way prosody indicates the «theme-rheme» organization of an utterance, i.e. it distinguishes between what is already known and what is new in the utterance.

The syntactical—distinctive function of prosody is to differentiate syntactical types of sentences and syntactical relations in sentences.

Stylistic — distinctive function of prosody manifests itself in that prosody differentiates pronunciation (phonetic) styles, determined by extralinguistic factors.

3. The identificatory function of prosody is to provide a basis for the hearer’s identification of the communicative and modal type of an utterance, its semantic and syntactical structure with the situation of the discourse.

All the functions of prosody are fulfilled simultaneously and cannot be separated one from another. They show that utterance prosody is linguistically significant and meaningful.

.

ominous.

5. Full rise. Emotionally involved, often «disbelief or shock, the extent of the emotion depending on the width of the tone.

6. High rise. Mild query or puzzlement; often used in echoing what has just been said.

7. Level. Bored, sarcastic, ironic.

8. Fall-rise. A strongly emotional tone; a straight or ‘negative’ face conveys uncertainty, doubt, or tentativeness; a positive face conveys encouragement or urgency.

9. Rise-fall. Strong emotional involvement; depending on the face, the attitude might be delighted, challenging, or complacent.

Two more pitch parameters are pitch ranges and pitch levels. Three pitch ranges are generally distinguished: normal, wide, and narrow. Pitch levels may be high, medium, and low.

Loudness is used in a variety of ways. Gross differences of meaning (such as anger, menace, and excitement) can be conveyed by using an overall loudness level.

The tempo of speech is the third component of intonation. The term tempo implies the rate of the utterance and pausation. The rate of speech can be normal, slow and fast. The parts of the utterance which are particularly important sound slower. Unimportant parts are commonly pronounced at a greater speed than normal.

Any stretch of speech can be split into smaller portions, i.e. phonetic wholes, phrases, intonation groups by means of pauses. By ‘pause’ here we mean a complete stop of phonation. We may distinguish the following three kinds of pauses:

1. Short pauses which may be used to separate intonation groups within a phrase. .

2. Longer pauses which normally manifest the end of the phrase.

3. Very long pauses, which are approximately twice as long as the first type, are used to separate phonetic wholes.

Functionally, there may be distinguished syntactic, emphatic and hesitation pauses.

Syntactic pauses separate phonopassages, phrases, and intonation groups. Emphatic pauses serve to make especially prominent certain parts of the utterance. Hesitation pauses are mainly used in spontaneous speech to gain some time to think over what to say next. They may be silent or filled.

FUNCTIONS OF PROSODY

The prosody of the utterance performs a number of functions, the basic of which are constitutive, distinctive and identificatory.

1. The constitutive function is to form utterances as communicative units. Prosody unifies words into utterances, thus giving the latter the final form without which they cannot exist. A succession of words arranged syntactically is not a communicative unit until a certain prosodic pattern is attached to it. E.G. «Pete has left for Leningrad» is not a communicative unit until it is pronounced , i.e. until it acquires a certain pitch—and— stress pattern. Prosody is the only language device that transform words as vocabulary items into comnunicative units — utterances. In written speech prosodic features are to some extent indicated by punctuation marks, e.g. «Fire!» is a command or an exclamation, depending on the situation in which it occurs, «Fire?» — a question, «Fire». — a. statement.

Prosody forms all communicative types of utterances — statements, questions, imperatives, exclamations and modal (attitudinal) types: — e.g. categoric statements, non-categoric, perfunctory statements, quizzical statements, certainty and uncertainty questions, insistent questions, etc. In constituting an utterance, prosody at the same time performs the segmentative and de limitative function. It segments connected discourse into utterances and intonation groups, and simultaneously delimits them one from another, showing relations between them. It also signals the semantic nucleus and other semantically important words of an utterance (or an intonation group). Prosody also constitutes phonetic styles of speech

2. The distinctive function of prosody manifests itself in several particular functions, depending on the meaning which is

24. UTTERANCE STRESS, ITS PHONETIC NATURE & FUNCTIONS. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UTTERANCE STRESS & WORD STRESS.

Words grouped into an utterance are not equally important.Those that are semantically more important are made prominent. The special prominence given to one or more words in an utterance is called utterance stress.

The means, with the help of which the special prominence is achieved and the effect of stress is produced, are variations of pitch, loudness, length and quality. Acoustically, utterance stress is determined by variations of fundamental frequency, intensity, duration & formant structure. It appears that fundamental frequency is more efficient in determining stresses in an utterance than intensity. Duration also appears to play a greater role than intensity.The effect of utterance stress is created by a certain interaction of different parameters. That is why utterance stress is a structural phenomenon. The acoustic structure of stress varies upon the type of stress & its position in an utterance.

Stresses in an utterance fulfill the same 3 functions as other components of prosody: constitutive, distinctive & identificatory. In their constitutive function stresses form the utterance by integrating words. They form the accentual structure of the utterance. The distinctive function manifests itself in differentiating utterances as to their meaning, which is conditioned by the position & type of stress. In its identificatory function utterance stress provides a basis for the hearer’s identification of the important parts of the utterance & for his understanding of the content.

Word stress and utterance stress are in close relation. Whenever utterance stress occurs it will normally fall on a syllable which has also word stress. The specific character of word stress & utterance stress is conditioned by the domain of their functioning: word stress is essential part of word-shape, whereas utterance stress is a feature of the utterance.

29.SPEECH TEMPO AND PAUSATION.

The tempo of speech is the rate at which utterance and their smaller units are pronounced. Tempo of speech may be determined by different factors. It may vary depending on the size of audience, the acoustic qualities of the room, the individuality of the speaker and other extralinguistic factors. But most significant for the linguistic study is how variations in tempo correlate with changes in meaning.

By slowing down the tempo of speech we make an utterance or part of it more prominent, thus underlining the semantic importance. By increasing the speed of utterance we diminish prominence and as a result the actual semantic importance of what we say. Tempo can also be used to express the speaker’s attitude or emotion.

Phoneticians generally distinguish normal tempo and 2 departures from the norm: fast and slow.D. Crystal gives a more detailed classification of variations of tempo. He distinguishes between simple and complex tempo systems.The simple tempo system is manifested both in monosyllables and polysyllabic stretches of utterance. The complex tempo system is realized in polysyllabic stretches.

In polysyllabic stetches of utterance Crystal distinguishes 2 degrees faster than the norm – allegro, allegrissimo, and 2 degrees slower than the norm – lento, lentissimo. In the complex tempo system there are accelerando – a gradual increase in temp, and rallentando – a gradual decrease. These contrasts of empo correlate with changes in meaning. They may also serve as a style-forming and style-differentiating device.



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