по теме «Уэльс»
учащимися 9 классов
руководитель: М.В. Афонина
Работа над проектом «УЭЛЬС» является примером познавательной и поисковой деятельности учащихся 9классов. Основной целью проекта было дальнейшее совершенствование иноязычной компетенции, использование всех возможных источников информации, а также видео и звуковых материалов для глубокого изучения одной из стран королевства Великобритании.
Кропотливая и целенаправленная работа учащихся позволила расширить объем материала страноведческого и лингвострановедческого характера, связанного с историей и культурой, государственным устройством и символами страны, достопримечательностями и национальными особенностями жителей Уэльса. Материал повышенной, в языковом отношении, сложности обрабатывался, систематизировался и адаптировался.
Слаженное сотрудничество учащихся и учителя было спланировано на каждом этапе и выявило индивидуальные творческие способности участников проекта. Внимание аудитории было привлечено хорошими речевыми навыками, информативностью и наглядностью материала.
Следует считать позитивным расширение кругозора учащихся, приобретенный ими опыт совместного научного поиска и развитие их лингвинистических способностей в использовании английского языка в виде инструмента общения в диалоге культур современного мира.
Welcome to Wales — to a land of stunning and ever varied landscapes marvellous castles alive with history and breath-taking scenery — and to its kind and hospitable people.
Wales [weilz] (Уэльс) one of the four countries that makeup the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, occupying the western part of the island of Great Britain.
HISTORY: Wales is an ancient country.
Wales really begins with the Anglo-Saxon victories in the 6th and 7th centuries. Until the 11th century the Vikings made frequent raids on the coast. Then came the Normans. However, the subjection of the people was completed by Edward I who made his son, afterwards Edward II, the first Prince of Wales. From that time the eldest son of the ruling king or queen has usually been made Prince of Wales.
Wales is bounded on the north by the Irish Sea, on the east by the English counties, on the south by the Bristol Channel, and on the west by St George’s Channel. Its surface is largely mountainous, 6 per cent of Wales is covered by forest. The main rivers are Severn, Wye, Usk and Dee.
Although some parts of Wales are good for farming, the mountainous area-has very poor land, which is only good for sheep farming or growing pine forests. The sheep provide wool for local weaving industries, and the wood is used for beautiful handmade furniture.
Wales is noted for mineral wealth, producing iron, coal, copper, lead, zinc, slate, and limestone.
South Wales is highly industrialized, with «large iron- and steelworks, chemical plants, and other heavy industries. Wales is traditionally divided into North Wales and South Wales
A county is the chief regional administrative unit, and according to this official division Wales consists of 8 counties.
GOVERNMENT: returns 38 members to the UK Parliament. Wales is often referred to as «the principality», since the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles, has the title of Prince of Wales. Wales and England are administered together for most purposes. They share the same legal and educational systems. In this respect, Wales is unlike Scotland, which has its own system of local government,-law and education.
POPULATION (1994): 2,913,000. The western pocket of Britain is almost a separate nation, with its own language, music, and Celtic culture. The Welsh people are originally Celts, and many of their traditions date back to the pre-Christian times of the Celts and the Druid religion. Like the Celtic peoples they were short, strong and dark-haired. They had a reputation for being good fighters, whose national pride and love of the arts were fed by their mystic Druid beliefs. Many Welsh are patriotic, and resent the presence or influence of the English in their land.
Cardiff is-the largest city of Wales. It is administered as a unitary authority. It is in the historic county of Glamorgan. Today, it is the 10th largest city in the United Kingdom and part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. Cardiff Urban Area covers a slightly larger area, including Dinas Powys and Penarth.
It is also the country’s main economic, industrial and cultural centre. It is situated on the southeast coast of Wales, and three rivers, the Taff, the Ely and the Rhymney flow through it into the Bristol Channel.
A large area of parkland lies near the centre of Cardiff, and many of the city’s major commercial buildings are found around Cathays Park. The Civic Centre is also situated here, and this includes the Laws Courts, the National Museum of Wales and the University College. Nearby there are many fashionable shops and modern hotels, and Cardiff Castle, which was built in 1090. Factories in Cardiff produce parts for cars, chemicals, electronic equipment, engineering products, food and tobacco. Modern rail and road communications link Cardiff with the rest of Great Britain, and an airport lies outside the edge of the city.
Cardiff is a major UK city and it is home to the Welsh government in Cardiff Bay and Welsh media. Doctor Who and Torchwood along with other series are filmed mostly within the City and County of Cardiff. Cardiff is has the biggest media sector outside London.
The seat of the new Welsh assembly has only been the principality’s capital since 1955. The town has grown into its leading role surprisingly quickly. There’s a confidence and optimism about this attractive, spacious city.
LANGUAGES: English, Welsh. In some ways, Wales is the most foreign of the four lands that make up the United Kingdom. The word «Welsh» itself is derived from English «wealth», the term used by the Anglo-Saxon invaders for the original Britons or Celts. The Welsh language is spoken by about two out of ten people in Wales. English people find it very difficult to spell and pronounce Welsh words, esp. place names such as Llwchwr or Pwllheli. The Welsh name for Wales is «Cymru», and that of the Welsh themselves is «Cymry», meaning «compatriot». Welsh is still spoken by about 19% of the population, mainly in the north and west, and is still the first language for many people. In recent years there has been increasing interest in encouraging the use of this Celtic language, esp. in schools and by radio and television.
Announce that you’re off to London or Oxford for the weekend, and people will nod their heads in appreciation. Mention Scotland and everyone will be impressed. But tell your friends you’re going to Wales for a break and they’ll usually snigger behind their hands and ask you if the finances are really that bad.
In an attempt to redress the balance, here are five of the principality’s most spectacular and interesting attractions. These five places will definitely convert the doubters and make you square up to your friends and say: «Yeah, we’re going to Wales. Have you got a problem with that boy?» many people go to Wales on holiday.
Whatever attracts you to Wales you can be sure of a friendly welcome, and wherever you go the traditional greeting will be the same — Croeso i Gymru (‘Welcome to Wales’).
There are many places in Wales which once visited will always be remembered. From Roman times, deep in the hills at Dolaucothi, there is the fascinating site of the only Roman gold mine in Britain. Don’t miss the 12th-century cathedral at St. David’s.
Wales is also renowned for its enchanting castles. From romantic ruins to mighty fortresses, there are more to the square mile than in any other country in the world. Perhaps the most famous is Caernarfon, built by the English king Edward I to subdue the Welsh during the 13th century. In its more recent history, Caernarfon Castle provided the setting for the Queen’s investiture of her son Charles as ‘Prince of Wales’, which took place in July 1969. One of the most unusual castles is Castell Coch, near Cardiff, which has been transformed into a fairy-tale castle with fantastically decorated interior. Cardiff is a lovely place to spend a weekend.
Visit some of Wales’ unforgettable gardens — the 18th-century formal garden at Erdigg, the waterfalls and woodland walks at Bryn Bras Castle in the foothills of Snowdonia, and the wonderful blend of both the formal and wild at Bodnant Garden, Gwynedd, overlooking the Vale of Conwy.
Take an unforgettable trip on one of the ‘Great Little Trams’ of Wales — a series of narrow gauge steam railways, originally used to transport goods during the great industrial era. One of the most famous is the Snowdon Mountain Railway which climbs more than 3,000 feet from Llanberis to the summit of Mount Snowdon.
The star of the show is undoubtedly the Snowdon massif itself, which can be climbed outright by the energetic or reached by cog railway from Llanberis. Some of the other mountains can be just as good or better, being less busy and providing excellent views of Snowdon. The Glyders and Tryfan are particularly good, and not too hard to climb.
The Snowdonia National Park has to be Wales’s undisputed crowning glory. The park is crowded with dramatic and often snow-covered mountains, steep cliff faces, waterfalls and peaks. All this makes for some of the most spectacular and unspoiled walking in the British Isles. In fact, looking at the grandeur of it all, it’s very hard to believe that the tallest of these mountains are little more than 3,000 feet high.
Tourism ranks second to manufacturing industry, the growth being encouraged by Wales’ rich heritage, culture and language. Many visitors to Wales are attracted by the sporting facilities, in particular yachting centres, both round the coast and on inland rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
You can go canal boating on the beautiful Llangollen Canal in the North; pony-trekking in the Snowdonia National Park; canoeing in the fast-flowing rivers and hiking in the hills. Most of the coastline is protected and has not been spoilt by tourism or industry.
The national emblem of Wales
On the first of March each year one can see people walking around London with leeks pinned to their coats. A leek is the national emblem of Wales. The many Welsh people who live in London — or in other cities outside Wales— like to show their solidarity on their national day. The day is actually called Saint David’s Day, after a sixth century abbot who became patron saint of Wales. He was a monk who lived on bread, water, herbs and leeks and died on March 1,589 AD. David is the nearest English equivalent to the saint’s name, Dawi.
The saint was known traditionally as the Waterman, which perhaps means that he and his monks were teetotallers. A teetotaller is someone who drinks no kind of alcohol, but it does not mean that he drinks only tea, as many people seem to think.
In spite of the leeks mentioned earlier, Saint David’s emblem is not that, but a dove. No one, not even the Welsh, can explain why they took leek to symbolise their country. After all, they can’t pin a dove to their coat!
The daffodil is also a Welsh national emblem because its Welsh name is translated as a type of leek.
The Welsh «national» costume seen on dolls and postcards is largely a myth created for tourism.
The Welsh also have a reputation for being good public speakers. The Welsh word «hwyl» is a name for the gift of speaking with passion
All over Wales you will find wishing wells into which people still throw money. Some wishing wells are said to help your love life, others can heal the sick, or so people say. A favourite souvenir for the tourists is a Welsh love spoon. These are made of wood and are carved very beautifully.
Like other Celtic lands, Wales has a distinct cultural heritage that is reflected in the various annual eisteddfods. The most important of these is the Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales, an annual festival of music, singing, prose and poetry contests, all in Welsh. The winner of the poetry competition is crowned as the «bard». Titles and awards are judged by the- «court», the body of bards and druids that assembles daily, during the Eisteddfod.
Originally only professionals took part, but now the Eisteddfod is open to the public and, because all the events are in Welsh, it encourages a strong interest in the Welsh arts. The competitions now include local crafts, orchestral and brass band contests and even ambulance work!
Many local communities organize their own Eisteddfod. An International Eisteddfod (the international festival of folk dancing and music) began in 1946, and no one expected much foreign interest. In fact fourteen countries took part. Nowadays, the International Eisteddfod takes place in the second week of July at Llangollen (in North Wales). People from over thirty countries come to compete in choral singing, folk singing and folk dancing, and the little valley is full of thousands of visitors coming to listen and watch. The Welsh have been famous for their singing for centuries. On his travels around Wales in the twelfth century, Giraldus Cambrensis wrote «in a crowd of singers… you will hear as many melodies as you see mouths
If you go to any Welsh rugby match, you will hear supporters singing in harmony. Male-voice choirs are found throughout Wales. Some of the greatest opera singers, like Geraint Evans, and pop singers, like Tom Jones, are also Welsh.
The Welsh people are famous for their love of music, song and dance. Besides festivals (‘eisteddfbrau’), pubs are often great places listen to musicians’ perform.