«The Intellectuals of the XXI Century»
Foreign Language Section
«The Effects of Advertising on the Human»
Yulia Demshina, Ekaterina Karpova
Form: 9 A
2.2 The Principle of Advertisement……………………………………….4
2.4 Advertising theory……………………………………………………....6
2.5 Types of advertising………………………………………………….…6
3. Statistics Data…………………………………………………………….9
«Only Mint can make money without advertising «
Advertising is the engine of commerce. The advertisement is necessary nowadays in the conditions of free economic market and concurrence. There are a lot of companies and firms, which are not very different in their production or service. The production is the same, the concurrence is increasing, and that is why the advertisement is important for a company to stand out against other firms. Besides the advertisement is the means to inform people about new products or services of a company.
In our view TV advertising is the most influential, because only on TV the advertiser can use all the tools to make an attractive commercial. There are a lot of people, who watch TV and they inevitably watch the advertisement.
We have chosen this topic because this problem seems to be really urgent nowadays. We think now there are many people who are influenced by advertisement. There is too much advertisement around us nowadays, which people avoid to take it in. And now it is a problem.
The contradiction is that, despite the opinion that no doubt, the ads are a useful thing in the work of the advertiser, at the same time, it can have a devastating impact on the health and psyche of people, and the further development of advertising can radically change the social relations in society.
The object of the study is the pupils of gymnasium and their parents.
The subject of this study is the effect of advertising on people’s minds.The purpose of the study is to determine if there is the negative impact of advertising on people’s minds.
The objectives are:
to interview children and adults
to study features of the advertisement
to see whether there are changes in people’s relations to each other and to the environment under the influence of advertising;
identify people’s attitudes to the presence of advertising on television;
to find the ways of solving this problem.
Hypothesis — basis: We assume that advertising affects on people’s minds and change their attitude towards the world. The method of gathering of sociological data is a survey.
To our mind, the urgency of the research is obvious. The tendency of development of advertising business has already become too widespread. It’s a cultural phenomenon of modern life.
According to American sociologists, 2783 people in the world become crazy each year from the effects of advertising. People do not realize the danger and continue to look «funny ads». A few years ago, a couple of commercials and videos on TV did not represent any threat. At present time, when the 18 (!)% of air time is «culled» ads this subject is acute among sociologists and psychologists.
2.2 The Principle of Advertisement
Advertising is a brief summary of products (goods/services), clearly specified, short, aesthetically attractive, designed for effective persuasion of the target audience (viewers/listeners/readers), to come to a decision on the request of the advertiser about the products (goods/services). As a rule, the purpose of advertising is to increase the sales of a product on the market. Advertising will speak about the characteristic features of the product. It can also inform the target audience about other different parts.
Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. History tells us that Out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.
As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour.
In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines.
In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
The late 1980s and early 1990s they saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and Shop TV Canada.
A recent advertising innovation is «guerrilla marketing«, which involves unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. Guerrilla advertising becomes more popular with a lot of companies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea.
2.4 Advertising theory
It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a buyer moves through making a purchase. The steps are:
2.5 Types of advertising
Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include
The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3.5 million (as of 2012).
An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word «infomercial» combines the words «information» & «commercial». The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.
also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise‘s character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo.
Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists.
Mobile billboard advertising
Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes.
In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store.
Coffee cup advertising
Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office, café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East
This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements.
This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers.
and also wall paintings, printed flyers and rack cards, mobile telephone screens, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts.
Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximizing local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company’s speed of implementation.
Today’s culture is made up of meanings between consumers and marketers. These meanings depict signs and symbols that are encoded in everyday objects. Semiotics is the study of signs and how they are interpreted. Advertising has many hidden signs and meanings within brand names, logos, package designs, print advertisements, and television advertisements. The purpose of semiotics is to study and interpret the message being conveyed in advertisements. Apple is an excellent example of using semiotics in their advertising campaign. Apple’s commercials used a black silhouette of a person. The white color signifies almost all of Apple’s products.
The semiotics of gender plays a key influence on the way in which signs are interpreted. In advertisements, men are represented as independent. They are shown in more occupations than women. Women are represented mainly as housewives and mothers. Men are more likely to be shown advertising cars or business products, while women advertise domestic products. Men are more likely to be shown outdoors or in business settings. Women are depicted in domestic settings. As far as ads go, with age men seem to gain wisdom and authority. On the other hand women seem to disappear with age. Voiceovers are commonly used in advertising. Most voiceovers are men (figures of up to 94% have been reported).
3. Statistics Data
«Only Mint can make money without advertising» are the words of Thomas Macaulay, English essayist, and they do not lose their relevance for almost 200 years.
The matter is complicated by the fact that in Russia advertising is a relatively new kind of psychological impact. Our people have not ways of protecting against this kind of manipulation, so these people’s reactions to advertising may be called naive and direct: curiosity, interest, negative — hostile attitudes (resistance), ironic attitude (preparation).
These reactions reflect the attitude toward advertising as a personal treatment — «They treat me with the offer, and I must answer it.» The correct attitude to advertising is neutral. A neutral attitude reflects an entirely different meaning: advertising does not «appeal to me personally,» but there is something else — some signs of existing of organizations. As a living person exhales air, advertising is the only sign of life entities. As soon as we stop to evaluate it as reversed to us, any negative impact of advertising on us will disappear. So, to summarize: A. Advertising, as a rule has two effects — short-term effects of emotional arousal (in order to sell the goods) and long-term effect, which leads to the formation in the long term behavior addict. B. To avoid the negative effects of advertising we should have a neutral attitude towards it.
The practical significance.The study has a theoretical value. At the same time, it may have some practical value to producers of advertising.
The aim of our study was to examine the perception of children of different ages of television advertising and its influence on their behavior and characteristics of perception and attitudes of their parents toward television commercials. The study involved 10 children preschool age and 10 parents, 10 students in the middle (sixth grade) and 10 high-school age (tenth grade).What is the attitude of children to advertising products?Table 1. The attitude of children of different age groups to television advertising (%)
What are the views of children on the appointment of advertising?Half of the youngest respondents simply refuse to give a definition of the phenomenon of advertising. But about 40% of children in the preparatory group are well aware of the real purpose of advertising — to inform potential customers about various products. . The majority (75%) of young adolescents understand the informing function of advertising, and only 8% of children do not know why it is needed. 18% of respondents answered «to torture people,» «to take time.» It is noteworthy that 40% of older adolescents indicate an aggressive manipulative function of advertising — «it impacts on the human psyche, trying to fool his head to buy their products,» «an attempt to shove the buyer that he does not need.» To learn whether the children believe what is reported in the commercial, you can see in the Table 2.
Table 2. The proportion of children in different age groups, trusting advertising (%)
It certainly indicates a significant impact of the parents’ perception on the child on television advertising. The subject of the most popular advertising among children is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Advertising and thematic preferences
of children of different age groups (%)
places for children*
* McDonald’s, Disneyland, etc. The most popular advertising is the advertising of food, drinks, toys (they were called by about the third of children). Obvious differences between boys and girls have not been identified, except one: household appliances were called by only boys.Among the commercials, the most frequently mentioned by preschoolers are Pepsi, Orbit, advertising of cartoons.In addition to the most preferred, the children called also the least liked advertisements, causing a negative attitude. For preschoolers they are Chupa Chups, children’s Orbit, slimming, and anti-dandruff shampoo. The explanations were: «stupid», «not funny», «adult», about the dandruff – “unpleasant», «boring”. Younger and older adolescents report negative assessments of advertising of hygiene for women, as well as «beer with the players,» tea «Brook Bond». By the way, more than 50% of parents who participated in the study, have a negative attitude toward advertising, 15% like only a few commercials, only about 10% of parents expressed a positive attitude toward advertising. Advertising does not have a systematic impact on the life of children — such a conclusion can be drawn on the basis of parental response to a question form. As a rule, children remember some expressions or unusual stories. It is noteworthy that the majority of students and younger students could not recall any TV commercials, some phrases, and song characters. Do the children ask to buy advertised products? Among preschool children, most (80%) experiences the motivational impact of advertising. The fourth part of the responses of parents does not coincide with the responses of children. In the other age groups, the numbers are the following: 12, and 10%. Based on the responses of parents, most children respond to parental refusal calmly, that is, those situations are not traumatic for them. Perhaps this is due to situational child desires or good rapport with parents. The study showed that television advertising certainly affects the children of different age groups, especially preschool children. According to parents, most kids know commercials for a number of visual, sounds; reproduce individual statements, expressions, tones. Nevertheless, children do not interrupt their activities because of the ads; do not choose to advertise to other transmissions.
The results showed that overall advertising still does not play a decisive role in shaping consumer preferences; it is not a means to manipulate the minds of children. Many of them have enough critical perceive of television advertising. Nevertheless, it seems necessary to introduce ethical and legal standards and restrictions on television advertising, development of human expertise on the impact of man’s consciousness of this new social technology.
In conclusion, we would like to quote the words of the recent advertisement — there were remarkable words: «You can advertise whatever you want». Advertising was the following: when the pleasant melody was being played a yellowish liquid was being poured into a glass — that is just like in any common commercial of some juice. Then the camera slowly moved and the process of pouring of fish oil in a glass out of cans appeared in front of the audience.