power shovel прямая лопата
backhow обратная лопата
dragline скребковый экскаватор
bucket wheel excavator
ladder-type trenching machine
многоковшовый цепной экскаватор
hinged jaws челюсти грейферного ковша
crane подъемный механизм
bucket wheel excavator роторный экскаватор
ladder-type trenching machine многоковшовый цепной экскаватор
piling отсыпка грунта в отвал
A power shovel is a digging and loading machine consisting of a revolving deck with a power plant, driving and controlling mechanisms, and a front attachment, such as a boom, supporting a handle with a bucket at the end.
A backhoe is used for digging below working level; it pulls the load toward the deck of the shovel.
A dragline excavator has a long boom. From its end is suspended a hoist cable, at the end of which is a bucket. On soft and watery land, particularly in building dams, the long reach of the dragline is more effective than bulldozers and other earth moving machines.
A clamshell is a bucket with two hinged jaws carried by a crane suspended from the boom by two lines: one raises and lowers the bucket, and the other pulls the jaws together for digging. It is used chiefly for deep, narrow excavations, for piling, and rehandling sand or gravel, but it can do almost any type of digging.
A bucket wheel excavator and a ladder-type trenching machine are continuous digging machines. A bucket wheel excavator uses a large wheel consisting of a continuous pattern of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns. They are among the largest vehicles ever constructed. A ladder-type trenching machine has buckets attached to a chain. It is used to dig trenches, especially for laying pipes or cables and for installing drainage.