DESIGN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA
What was the main goal of the special commission?
The first information about design appeared in 1918, when Russian government put a task of industrial innovation according to new trends in art. So a special commission containing the heads and chief engineers from plants vital for the economy of the country was organized. The main goal of the commission was working out modern artistic ideas in building and industry and their immediate application in the production process. They wanted any everyday life thing people buy looked pleasant and attractive by appearance. They tried to brighten up even the rest to make it more comfortable and convenient.
What was the principle of design development after 1920?
By a special order of Sovnarcom in 25.12.1920 there were founded several Higher Artistic Technical workshops (VHUTEMAS). Each of them had to be an institution training arts connected with industry. Many architects believed they should destroy the previous understanding of culture and only on its ruins they could build a new culture of society. At the end of the 30s design started penetrating the field of ordinary goods: some qualified artists were invited to participate in designing the first Soviet telephone, a radio-set and furniture; later the spreading of design touched shipbuilding and automobile-production.
What events play important role in popularization of Russian design?
Now in our multinational country with a great number of religions and traditions there are lots of masters and schools dealing with design; specialists say that sometimes it is easy to recognize not only the nationality or even a master himself by certain peculiarities of a master’s product. Also important role in popularization of Russian design play specialized fairs and exhibitions. Design has different aims according to the sphere of industry it is applied in (for example, plates, cups, soup-sets are projected by specialists in ceramics).
Planning is a systematic, organized method of approaching a problem. In the context of this text, planning means following the design process.
Design has three major components: creative, technical and aesthetic. The creative component is the expression of a person’s ideas and is unique to the individual. The technical part is the application of technology to the resolution of the design idea. The aesthetic quality of a design relates to how pleasing it is to look at. Good design expresses a person’s creativity with a balance of technical quality, as represented by the functionality of the product, and of aesthetic quality.
Functionality is a measure of how well the product meets the needs as expressed in the design problem. Aesthetic quality is determined by the mix of form, space, color, line, texture, and light and shadow.
Aesthetic design follows basic principles: Unity, or a feeling of wholeness; variety, or contrast in texture, line, shade; emphasis, used to point out particular details; balance, or the appearance of equal weight for various components; repetition, or the use of a detail or element throughout; and rhythm, or the repetition of lines and curves to give a feeling of movement. These are used in various combinations to give a particular feeling to a design.
Two additional devices used to promote a particular design concept are the materials used for the product and the type and style of surface decoration.