English language and English dialects. 2012 годContent:1. Characteristic of English language.2. Opinions foreign people about English.3. Grammar in English: easy or hard?4. Dialects.5. British English.6. American English.7. Australian English.8. Conclusion.
English language is one of the most popular languages of nowadays. A lot of people all over the world learn English for communicating with people or for future business. English language is an international method of communicating with another nation people. And there are lots countries which have English as a mother tongue. For example: USA, Australia, Canada.And maybe everybody in this world know English, not excellent but enough to travel in another countries. A lot of people think that English is very easy language, but they are wrong. Chinese and Japanese people think that English has an awful pronounce, for Asia people is very difficult to talk on English because of speech apparatus, which is really different. Asian people use a lite form of English. This form includes a very easy grammar and minimum of difficult pronounce moments. But Chinese people refused learning English, they said that they were one of the most important countries with resources and they didn’t need to learn English. Maybe they want world to learn Chinese, because their position in economic plan. American people think that British English is very difficult too. And they have changed pronounce and grammar for easy using language for communicating. But immigrants who live in America think not like Americans. Immigrants think that is very bad to have a lot of slang words in everyday talk. It spoils all culture of language. Grammar in English is very interesting theme to talk. English language includes 16 times, but in our talks or communicating we use just 6 or 8. Sometimes we learn all these times just to know it and pass the exams. In our everyday talk you can notice that we use long forms of building sentences which is very difficult to build and tell. And for economy of our time we use a short form of building sentences. We can use for example: «you’ll» or «they’ve» instead of «you will» and «they have». It is very useful in our life. But you can use this short form only after understanding grammar. Of course English has its own slang like in Russian. Sometimes slang uses in teen’s talk. Like in Russian language in English slang is very useful in everyday talk and a lot of these slang words are foreign. For example: «Back out» it means that you promised something to do and didn’t do it.But it is very easy to learn some slang words in Internet. Just open the most popular social network which calls Facebook and have a chat with somebody. It will improve your English in hundred times! But you are going to meet with problem of reading messages. Everybody use short forms of writing in English like: «haz» or «rly» instead of «has» and «really». It is a big problem in communicating with American people because you can’t understand what they are talking about. Dialects.What does it mean dialect? Dialect is an accent and various oration of one language. It is common phenomenon in nowadays. British English.The three largest recognizable dialect groups in England are Southern English dialects, Midlands English dialects and Northern English dialects
The accent best known to many people outside the United Kingdom as English English, is that of Received Pronunciation (RP). Until recently, RP English was widely considered to be more educated than other accents and was referred to as the Queen’s (or King’s) English, or even «BBC English» (because for many years of broadcasting it was rare to hear any other dialect on the BBC), even though this was not the accent held by the majority of English people. Since the 1970s regional accents have become increasingly accepted in mainstream media, and are frequently heard. RP is also sometimes called «Oxford English», and the Oxford Dictionary gives RP pronunciations for each word.
Native English speakers can often tell quite accurately where a person comes from, frequently down to within a few miles. A long time ago people from different parts of England couldn’t understand each other. There are also many cases where a large city has a very different accent from the rural area around it (e.g. Bristol and Avon, Hull and the East Riding, Liverpool and Lancashire). But modern communications and mass media have reduced these differences in some parts of the country. Speakers may also change their pronunciation and vocabulary, particularly towards Received Pronunciation and Standard English when in public.
American English.English is the most common language in the United States. Though the U.S. federal government has no official language, English is the common language used by the federal government and is considered the de facto language of the United States because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 28 of the 50 state governments. The use of English in the United States was a result of English colonization. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has been influenced by the languages of West Africa, the Native American population, and immigration.Compared to English as spoken in England, North American English is more homogeneous. Some distinctive accents can be found on the East Coast(for example, in eastern New England and New York City) partly because these areas were in close contact with England and imitated prestigious varieties of British English at a time when these were undergoing changes. You can hear that pronounce of American English is quite different too. Some people in Washington DC talk really cool, they have a very good pronunciation and culture of their mother tongue. Sometimes American people from different states can’t understand each other because of various style of talking. American English is really easy to learn it. It is all because of colonization. When Africans moved to New World it was very difficult to teach Britain English and then they have just pruned down grammar and pronounce.
Australian English.It shares most similarity with other Southern Hemisphere accents, in particular New Zealand English. Like most dialects of English it is distinguished primarily by its vowel phonology.Australian English has many words and idioms which are unique to the dialect and have been written on extensively, with the Macquarie Dictionary, widely regarded as the national standard, incorporating numerous Australian terms.
Internationally well-known examples of Australian terminology include outback, meaning a remote, sparsely populated area, the bush, meaning either a native forest or a country area in general, and g’day, a greeting. Dinkum, or fair dinkum means «true», or «is that true?», among other things, depending on context and inflection. The derivative dinky-di means ‘true’ or devoted: a ‘dinky-di Aussie’ is a ‘true Australian’.
As in most English speaking countries, there is no official governmental regulator or overseer of correct spelling and grammar. The Macquarie Dictionary is used by universities and other organisations as a standard for Australian English spelling. The Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers is the most prominent style guide, serving as the standard for Australian governments.
Australian spelling is similar to British spelling. As in British spelling, the «u» is retained in words such as honour and favour, and «re» is preferred over «er» in words such as theatre and for metric units such as metre, litre. The «-ise» ending is used in words such as organise and realise, although «-ize» also exists, but is far less common. Words spelled differently from British spelling, according to the Macquarie Dictionary include «program» as opposed to «programme», «jail» as opposed to «gaol», «medieval» as opposed to «mediaeval», «encyclopedia» as opposed to «encyclopaedia», and «analog» as opposed to «analogue» when used in a technical or electronic sense. Both «acknowledgment» and «acknowledgement», as well as «abridgment» and «abridgement» are used, with the shorter forms being endorsed by Australian governments. In addition to these words, the dictionary also notes an increased tendency within Australia to replace the ‘ae’ in words such as «palaeontology» and «faeces», and the ‘oe’ in words such as «foetus» and «diarrhoea» with ‘e’, as with American practice. Single quotation marks with logical punctuation and unspaced em-dashes are preferred, and the DD/MM/YYYY date format is used.
Different spellings have existed throughout Australia’s history. A pamphlet entitled The So-Called «American Spelling», published in Sydney some time in the 19th century, argued that «there is no valid etymological reason for the preservation of the u in such words as honor, labor, etc.» The pamphlet also claimed that «the tendency of people in Australasia is to excise the u, and one of the Sydney morning papers habitually does this, while the other generally follows the older form.»
This influence can be seen in the spelling of the Australian Labor Party, spelt without a «u», with the atypical American spelling that was more common at the time of its formation in 1912. For a short time during the late 20th Century, Harry Lindgren‘s 1969 spelling reform proposal (Spelling Reform 1 or SR1) was popular in Australia and was adopted by the Australian government. SR1 calls for the short /e/ sound (as in bet) to be spelt with E (for example friend→frend, head→hed). Many general interest paperbacks were printed in SR1. Nowadays Australian English is really different. If you are going to visit Australia be prepare that you are not going to understand this accent.Australian English appeared because of English (standard) and some of south Europe language and it is because of colonization. They have a similar grammar and difficult pronunciation. There is no very various differences in Britain English and Australian English. Australians just have added a lot of slang words and put a lot of reductions in their English.
ConclusionThe main task of this work is just to make idea about appearing dialects of English and changing Britian English to another dialects. And of course this work has helped me to understand that English can be really different.During doing this work I understood that I want to learn English like my second mother tongue and who knows it will be really useful in future. And of course I am really looking forward trying my skill of English and trying to enter to University in England. And it is amazing that I have decided to do this exploring. I am really happy when I realize that I can communicate with people from different countries. Гимназия номер 92, 194017, пр. Мориса Тореза, д.94.Тема: Диалекты английского языка.Автор: Меомутли Анна Руководитель: Локотькова Наталья НиколаевнаЦель работы: дать основные понятия образования диалектов английского языка в разных странах. Объяснить появления диалекта и описать диалект и его различия с Британским английским.Задача: 1) Показать разнообразия английского языка. 2) Показать видоизменение языка вследствие времени.Вывод: эта работа помогла мне в изучении языка. С помощью этих фактов об изменении языка я поняла многое о произношении и современном английском языке.