Творческий проект по английскому языку по теме Russia in the History of the Olympic Gam



Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение

Приупская средняя общеобразовательная школа

Администрации муниципального образования Киреевский район

Проект

по английскому языку

«Russia in the History of the Olympic Games»

Ивлиевой Василисы

ученицы 8 класса

Руководитель Полуэктова Т.В.

учитель английского языка

2012 г.

Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………… 3

Part 1. History of development of the Olympic Games

Ancient Olympic Games…………………………………………………… 4-5

Modern Olympic movement………………………………………………… 6-7

Part 2. Russia in the history of the Olympic Games

2.1. Russia and its role in the Olympic movement……………………………… 8-9

2.2. The contribution of Russian sportsmen to the Olympic movement………10-12

2.3. Talisman for the future Olympic Games in Sochi 2014…………………….. 13

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………….14

Literature…………………………………………………………………………15

Introduction

The world’s greatest international sports games are known as the Olympic Games. The Olympic idea means friendship, fraternity and cooperation among the people of the world. The Olympic Movement proves that real peace can be achieved through sport.

The purposes of my project:

to study history of development of the Olympic Games;

to learn more about the role and contribution of Russia and Russian sportsmen to the Olympic movement;

to pay attention to features of the future Olympic Games in Sochi 2014;

to create own talisman for the future Olympic Games in Sochi.

Methods of research:

studying of scientific and reference literature;

searching for information in the Internet;

analysis, synthesis and generalization of received information;

inductive and deductive methods;

modeling.

The original Olympic Games began in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. These games were part of a festival held every fourth year in honor of God Zeus at the place called Olympia. It was a great athletic festival, including competitions in wrestling, foot racing and chariot racing, rowing and others. The games were for men only. Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch the Olympics. The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896. Then they were resumed in London after the Second World War. Since then the Olympics are held every fourth year in different countries. The ancient Greeks had no winter sports. Only in 1924 the first Winter Olympic Games were held in France. Now they are being held regularly.

Part 1. History of development of the Olympic Games

Ancient Olympic Games

The original Olympic Games began in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. The original Olympic Games were held every four years in honor of Zeus, the supreme god of Greek religion. Every four years, all wars were stopped as the country came together to honor the god Zeus.

The first record of the games dates from 776 B.C., but it is certain that they existed prior to that. Greek people found those games so important that they used periods in between the Games to date important historical events. The winner of the Games got very good prizes – free food and housing for life. Poets mentioned the winners in their poems, architects made sculptures of winner athletes, and they became popular throughout Greece. So, winning the Olympic Games made you a national hero. It was already an honor to take part in the Games. People from Italy, Sicily, Asia, Africa, and Spain all made the long way to Olympia. Olympia was chosen as a sight of the Games because it was seen as a neutral area. It was also a beautiful green valley accessed by two rivers. The Olympia was also the place where the wild olive tree grew. And the Crown Olive became the only prize won at Olympia.

Originally there was only one race. It was a sprint and the winners got a prize — an olive wreath. The important sports in the original Olympic Games were running, jumping, wrestling, throwing the discus and throwing the javelin. Only men competed and they wore no clothes in order to have greater freedom of movement. Each competitor had to take the Olympic Oath — a promise to behave in a sportsman-like fashion.

During the 1000 years after those first «official» Games in 776 BC, Greece came under Roman rule. After the 293rd Olympics in 393 AD, the Roman emperor Theodosius II declared that the Games would no longer be held, and the Olympic movement ended.

Modern Olympic movement

The modern Olympic era began in 1894 when Frenchman Baron Pierre de Coubertin decided to revive the ancient Greek tradition of celebrating health, youth and peace with a sports festival. Coubertin presented his idea in 1894, and at first many had no interest in the revival of the games, but later it was voted unanimously to bring the games back. Baron de Coubertin created the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the first modem Olympiad took place in Athens in 1896. Since then the Olympic Games have been held every four years with only two exceptions because of the two world wars.

As in ancient Greek times, the competitors still take the Olympic Oath. The long-distance race is still called the Marathon. Marathon was a village about 26 miles from Athens. In the year 490 BC the Greeks defeated a powerful Persian army at that spot. After the fierce day’s fighting a soldier volunteered to bring news of the victory to the anxious citizens of Athens. He ran all the way and after gasping out the message. «Rejoice, we conquer!» he collapsed and died.

One important rule of the Olympic Games is that the competitors must be amateurs. This rule has been under a lot of pressure in recent years because modem sport is so professional and competitive. Athletes train for years to take part in the Olympics and some countries spend much more than others on equipment and facilities. But despite these pressures, the amateur rule remains.

In modern times the Olympic movement has become an enormous and expensive organization; it’s controlled by the International Olympic Committee, which consists of members from all the participating countries. The IOC is based in Lausanne, Switzerland. It chooses the locations of both summer and winter games (both take place once every four years, with winter games half a year before summer Olympiads). It also controls the rules of the competitions and selects new Olympic sports.

Part 2. Russia in the history of the Olympic Games

2.1. Russia and its role in the Olympic movement

Russia has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history. As the Russian Empire, the nation first competed at the 1900 Games, and returned again in 1908 and 1912. After the Russian revolution in 1917, and the subsequent establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, it would be forty years until Russian athletes once again competed at the Olympics, as part of the Soviet Union at the 1952 Summer Olympics. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia competed as part of the Unified Team in 1992, and finally returned once again as Russia at the 1994 Winter Olympics.

The Soviet Union hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and Russia will host the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.

In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is the central policy-making body of the Olympic movement. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programme of the games, the number of the participants and the city-host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.

Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centers. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Game.

Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. Since then it has won a lot of gold, silver, and bronze medals. In 1980 Moscow hosted the Twenty- Second Olympic Games.

The contribution of Russian sportsmen to the Olympic movement

The latest Olympic Games were held in Vancouver. Russian sportsmen got medals for their records in many sports events.

Russian athletes have won a total of 324 medals (316 since 1994) at the Summer Olympic Games and another 76 at the Winter Olympic Games. Over the most recent eight Games (since 1994), Russia’s 392 total medals, including 141 gold medals, are second only to the United States (with 489 and 183, respectively).

Medals at Summer Games

Games

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Rank

1896

1900

0

0

0

0

1904

Did not participate

1908

1

2

0

3

12

1912

0

2

3

5

16

1920-1948

Did not participate

1952-1988

As part of the Soviet Union

1992

As part of the Unified Team

1996

26

21

16

63

2

2000

32

28

28

88

2

2004

27

27

38

92

3

2008

23

21

29

73

3

Total

109

101

113

323

Medals at Winter Games

Games

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Rank

1924-1952

Did not participate

1952-1988

As part of the Soviet Union

1992

As part of the Unified Team

1994

11

8

4

23

1

1998

9

6

3

18

3

2002

5

4

4

13

5

2006

8

6

8

22

4

2010

2

5

7

15

11

Total

36

29

26

91

Medals at summer sport

Sport

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Wrestling

21

11

8

40

Athletics

18

22

20



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