PART II. PRACTICAL PART.
Seminar 1. SYSTEMIC CONCEPTION OF LANGUAGE.
MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORD.
1.What are the determining features of a system? How do they apply to language?
2.What is the functional relevance of the language unit?
3.What conceptual correlation is the language-speech dichotomy based on?
4.What is the correlation of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations?
5.What is the difference between segmental and suprasegmental units?
6.What language levels are identified in the language system?
7.What are the determining features of a system? How do they apply to language?
8.What is the functional relevance of the language unit?
9.What conceptual correlation is the language-speech dichotomy based on?
10.What is the correlation of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations?
11.What is the difference between segmental and suprasegmental units?
12.What language levels are identified in the language system?
I. Do the morphemic analysis of the words on the lines of the traditional and distributional classifications.
MODEL: Do the morphemic analysis of the word «inseparable».
On the lines of the traditional classification the word «inseparable» is treated as a three-morpheme word consisting of the root «-separ-«, the prefix «in-» and the lexical suffix «-able».
On the lines of the distributional analysis the root «-separ-» is a bound, overt, continuous, additive morpheme; the prefix «in-» is bound, overt, continuous, additive; the suffix «-able» is bound, overt, continuous, additive.
a)unmistakably, children’s (books), disfigured, underspecified, surroundings, presume, kingdom, brotherhood, plentiful, imperishable, unprecedented, oxen, embodiment, outlandish;
b)hammer, students’ (papers), sing — sang — singing — singer, really, proficient — deficient — efficient, gooseberry, incomparable;
c)quiet, perceptions, bell, unbelievably, glassy, uncommunicative, inexplicable, infamy, strenuousness;
d)inconceivable, prefigurations, southernism, semidarkness, adventuresses, insurmountable, susceptibility, ineptitude, unfathomable, insufficiency, to prejudge, cranberry.
II. Define the type of the morphemic distribution according to which the given words are grouped.
MODEL: insensible — incapable
The morphs «-ible» and «-able» are in complementary distribution, as they have the same meaning but are different in their form which is explained by their different environments.
a)impeccable, indelicate, illiterate, irrelevant;
d)seams, seamless, seamy.
III.Group the words according to a particular type of morphemic distribution.
MODEL: worked — bells — tells -fells — telling — spells — spelled -spelt — felled — bell.
spells — spelled: the allomorphs «-s» and «-ed» are in contrastive distribution (= fells — felled);
bell — bells: the allomorph «-s» and the zero allomorph are in contrastive distribution;
spelt — spelled: the allomorphs «-t» and «-ed» are in non-contrastive distribution;
worked-spelled: the allomorphs «-ed» [t] and «-ed» [d] are in complementary distribution, etc.
a)burning — burns — burned — burnt;
b)dig — digs — digging — digged — dug — digger;
c)light — lit — lighted — lighting — lighter;
d)worked — working — worker — workable — workoholic.
IV.Group the words according to a particular type of morphemic distribution:
1.mice, leapt, appendices, kittens, cats, witches, leaping, children, leaped, leaps, formulae, stimuli, matrices, sanatoria;
2.geese, dogs, chickens, deer, mats, bade, bid, phenomena, formulae, for-mulas, genii, geniuses, scissors;
3.genera, brethren, brothers, trout, gestures, blessed, blest, tins, pots, matches, antennae, antennas;
4.anthems, classes, lice, handkerchiefs, handkerchiefs, bereft, bereaved, grouse, cleaved, cleft, clove.
Seminar 2. CATEGORIAL STRUCTURE OF THE WORD.
GRAMMATICAL CLASSES OF WORDS.
1.In what way are the two notions — «grammatical category» and «opposition» — interconnected?
2.What grammatical elements constitute a paradigm?
3.What are the differential features of privative, gradual, and equipollent oppositions?
4.What enables linguists to consider the privative binary opposition as the most important type of oppositions?
5.What makes neutralization stylistically colourless?
6.What ensures a stylistic load of transposition?
7.What is the grammatical essence of the term «part of speech»?
8.What are the strong and weak points of the traditional (polydifferential) classification of words?
9. What are the main principles of the three-layer classification of words?
10.What parts does the whole of the lexicon consist of?
11.What is the differential feature of the notional part of the lexicon?
12.What is the notional part of the lexicon represented by? What demonstrates the unity of the notional part of the lexicon?
I. Define the types of the oppositions and interpret the categorial properties of their members in privative terms.
The words «play — played» make up a binary privative opposition. The strong member is «played»; its differential feature is the denotation of a past action. The marker of this categorial meaning is the grammatical suffix «-ed».
a.к — g, m — w, s — n;
b.he — she, he — they, he — it, we — they;
c.intelligent — more intelligent — the most intelligent;
d.I understand — I am understood;
e.tooth — teeth, pincers — a pair of pincers;
f.am — is;
g.he listens — he is listening;
h.mother — room.
II. Build up the oppositions of the categorial forms and define the types of the oppositions:
efficient, have defined, they, information, he, more efficient, vessel, we, define, the most efficient, are defined, I, vessels, will define, bits of information, defined, less efficient, a most efficient.
III.Build up the lexical paradigm of nomination.
MODEL: high: high — height — heighten — highly (high)
1)fool, to criticize, slow, fast;
2)new, work, to fraud, out;
3)to cut, sleep, brief, hard;
4)down, beauty, to deceive, bright.
IV.Define part-of-speech characteristics of the underlined words. Analyze them
according to O. Jespersen’s theory of three ranks. Give your reasons.
1.I don’t know why it should be, I am sure; but the sight of another man asleep in bed when I am up, maddens me (Jerome).
2.He did not Madame anybody, even good customers like Mrs. Moore.
3.To out-Herod Herod.
4.If ifs and ans were pots and pans there’d be no need of tinkers.
5.Poor dears, they were always worrying about examinations… (Christie)
6.»After all, I married you for better or for worse and Aunt Ada is decidedly the worse.» (Christie)
7.Good thing, too. He’d have gone to the bad if he’d lived (Christie).
8. «I believe,» said Tommy thoughtfully, «she used to get rather lots of fun out of saying to old friends of hers when they came to see her «Eve left you a little something in my will, dear» or «This brooch that you’re so fond of I’ve left you in my will.» (Christie)
9.When I’m dead and buried and you’ve suitably mourned me and taken up your residence in a home for the aged. I expect you’ll be thinking you are Mrs. Blenkinsop half of the time (Christie).
10.The little work-table dispossessed the whatnot — which was relegated to a dark corner of the hall (Christie).
11.»But -» Tuppence broke in upon his «but» (Christie).
12.»Look here, Tuppence, this whole thing is all somethings and someones. It’s just an idea you’ve thought up.’ (Christie)
13.Tommy came back to say a breathless goodbye (Christie).
14.Although it was dim, there was a faded but beautiful carpet on the floor, a deep sage-green in colour (Christie).
15.I thought it was something wrong when his wife suddenly up and left him (Christie).