Муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 69
Московского района г. Н. Новгорода
Научное Общество Учащихся
«Роль заимствованийв английском языке ».
Выполнила: Пиголина Анна
Ученица 8 «А» класса
учитель английского языка
This work is devoted to the theme of «Borrowings in English language.» The problem of the studying is very actually in our world. This is evidenced by the frequent lifting, and further studying of the issues of linguistic borrowing, which spread its influence in different spheres of activity as a particular generation, and the national development. No language is «pure» — any impurity is borrowing, English — is no exception. It has got words from Latin, Italian, Spanish, French and many other languages.
And, therefore, the study was of the abovementioned problems, and will be of relevant, because the language of borrowing with the general history in the past and prospects for the development of languages in the future.
Subject: To determine the growth of linguistic borrowing in the formation and development of English language.
What should I do for this, based the following:
— To study the theoretical aspects and characteristics in the creating and development of English language.
— Determine the criteria and the possibility of borrowings language in speech.
Language was formed simultaneously with the emergence of public relations in the process of joint work of primitive man, and since its inception has been the development of language and it is continuously connected with the development of society.
Language is constantly changing under the impact of social and political phenomena, and technological progress. In this case, the process of continuous enrichment of the language with new words, some of the words, in turn, out of active use (becoming archaic). Due to these influences and shaped the modern language of communication.
I want to know its history for a deeper understanding of language, the processes that shaped its vocabulary.
Many scholars have studied history of the origins of language, their similarities and differences, including English and Russian.
The History of English language is inseparably linked with the history of England. The Romans left the British Isles in 410, and Latin went too. The true inhabitants of the island (the Britons) continued to use the Celtic languages. In 449, the Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons and Jutes began the first attacks on the island. They spoke a dialect that developed on the basis of German language. Britons, like conquerors, spoke Indo-European languages, but the language of the Britons belonged to Celtic rather than to the German branch. Language of the conquerors, which added a handful of Celtic words, now called Anglo-Saxon. From the language of the Anglo-Saxons conquered Celtic Britain’s population remained largely geographical names.
The Danish king of England led to the establishment of settlements in the Scandinavian country in 1016. Interaction between closely related languages — English and Scandinavian — said available in modern English a significant number of words of Scandinavian origin, and some phonetic features characterizing the dialects of northern England. Nearly three centuries after the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the islands swept the next wave of «guests.» These people spoke a North German language, and came from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Their language is different from the Anglo-Saxon language about as well as the Italian is different from Spanish.
Despite the differences in pronunciation and endings, in both languages, it is still possible to find common roots, which makes the communication Vikings and Anglo-Saxons quite tolerable. Viking invasion was relatively peaceful, and after the first battles of the tribes began to coexist in England. Mixed languages, forming a mixed language, continue to be present in most of the continental languages. This mixed language gradually became recognized and transformed into what we now call the Old English language. In 1066, the Normans conquered England. They, like the Vikings came from Scandinavia, but for unknown reasons, settled in northern France and began to speak in a dialect of French. Norman invasion put French on the level of the state, the language of the ruling minority. All official documents were written in French, and it seemed that he would become a recognized language in the country. But stubborn Anglo-Saxons did not want to learn French, and the vast majority of people continued to speak Old English. English was not limited to the development of writing, so it was changing very rapidly, and simplify for centuries Norman conquest of England. A few more endings, survivors of the invasion of Vikings were driven standard word order and raise the profile of functional words. At the same time he absorbed a lot of French words that are mostly considered more polite and sensitive variants demotic Anglo-Saxon counterparts. Therefore, we now have an Anglo-Saxon swine, sheep and belly and French pork, mutton and stomach. So him and found the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote the famous «Canterbury Tales», a classic and almost the only example of a medieval English. In the sixth century missionaries brought Christianity to England. Latin words borrowed from the priests, fell immediately in spoken language. Many of them have changed so that they easily learn Latin prototypes. An example is the street, wine, bishop, priest and church. After the Norman invasion of borrowing from Latin began to gain momentum. Latin was the language of educated people in Europe. In church and independent schools taught Latin and Greek. Scientists often can not find a suitable English word to express their thoughts, so they are often used Latin words in the English language works. Thus, the English language has got a lot of Latin and Greek words, but it was more of a voluntary borrowing than the result of the pressure of external aggressors.
Common, traditional periodization shares the story of English into 3 periods:
Anglo-Saxon (Old English),
Middle English (Middle English),
Modern English. (Modern English).
A) Celtic period.
The History of English language begins with the invasion of the Germanic tribes of the British Isles in the V century. BC He came from the Anglo-Frisian dialects belonging to the West German branch of languages.
Words belonging to a common Indo-European group, are the most ancient part of the Old English vocabulary. Among these phenomena title words, plants and animals, the names of body parts, verbs denoting a person’s actions, most of the numerals: mona, beard, brodor, modor, sunu, don, beon, ic, min, pet, twa (in modern English moon , beard, brother, mother, son, do, be, I, my, that, two).
The second group of specific Ancient English words to her are the words that can not be found in any other German or non-German language. These words are very few, if left in this group are only words, the roots of which are not found anywhere other than English. These include the old English: clipian (call), brid (bird) and several others.
B) The conquest of Britain by Rome. In the conquest of Roman civilization spread to Britain, which led to a large number of borrowings from Latin into English.
– words related to the construction of: chalk, tile, copper;
– words related to the household: kettle, dish, cup, pillow;
– words relating to military affairs: mile, wall, street.
Roman cities have always been well fortified, so were called castra, which means military camp, today the city with the names ending in ‘chester’, ‘cester’ or ‘caster’ were once Roman fortifications.
Britain was occupied by the Roman Empire for about 400 years. Despite the fact that the Romans left Britain to resettlement Teuton, Latin words could move them through the Romanized Celts. Latin borrowings of this period can be divided into two groups:
a) the new religion brought a number of different concepts that needed to name: anthem (anthem), hymn (anthem), bishop (Bishop), monk (monk), candle (candle), devil (Satan), angel (angel), idol ( idol), martyr (Martyr), temple (temple), and others.
b) after the widespread introduction of Christianity throughout the country were founded monasteries, who usually had their schools, teaching which was conducted in Latin. Latin borrowings related to education: school, scholar, grammar, etc.
XX century is the century of integration and mutual cultural exchange on a global scale. Development of capitalism in Europe led eventually to the era of scientific and technological revolution, technological progress has brought the world many new inventions that changed the life of people — the social sphere. This has led to the emergence of new concepts, the names of which are international, many of these names are Latin or Greek origin.
Words related to the academic disciplines: philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, lexicology, psychology, sociology.
Words related to sports: football, volleyball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf.
Politics: Politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, communism, anti-militarism, socialism, anarchism, nazism, nationalism.
Scientific inventions: atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, automobile, submarine, motorcycle, telephone, gramophone, compact disk, sputnik (borrowed from Russian).
The names of exotic fruit imported products: coffee, cocao, chocolate, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit and so on.
The above examples illustrate the ability of a living language to improve and change under the influence of historical, social environment. Language as a dynamical system is constantly updated to reflect in his vocabulary of the most important events in human history.
Native words, though they constitute only 30% of the English vocabulary, are the most frequently used words, they constitute 80% of the 500 most frequent words compiled by Thorndyke and Longe ( The Teachers` Wordbook of 30 000 Words. New York, 1959).
Native words are subdivided into two groups: Indo – European and Common Germanic.
The oldest layers of words in English are words met in Indo – European languages. There are several semantic groups of them:
● words denoting kinship: father (Vater, pater), mother (Mutter, mater), son (Sohn, сын), daughter ( Tochter, дочь),
● words denoting important objects and phenomena of nature: the Sun (die Sohne, солнце), water (Wasser,вода),
● names of animal and birds: cats (Katze, кот), goose (Gans, гусь), wolf (Wolf, волк),
● names of part of a human body: heart (Herz, сердце),
● some of the most often used verbs: sit (sitzen,сидеть), stand (stehen, стоять),
● some numerals: two (zwei, два), three (drei, три).
A much larger group of native vocabulary are Common Germanic words (German, Norwegian, Dutch, Icelandic). Here we can find the nouns: summer, winter, storm, rain, ice, ground, bridge, house, life, shoe; the verbs: bake, burn, buy, drive, hear, keep, learn, make, meet, rise, and see; the adjectives: broad, dead, deaf, deep etc.
Native words have a great word building capacity, from a lot of phraseological units, they are mostly polysemantic.
Borrowing words from other languages has been characteristic of English throughout its history. More than two thirds of the English vocabulary are borrowings. Mostly they are words of Romantic origin (Latin, French, Italian, Spanish ). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic structure, by their morphological structure and also by their grammatical forms. It`s also characteristic of borrowings to be non-motivated semantically.
English history is very rich in different types of contacts with other countries, that is why it is very rich in borrowings. The Roman invasion, the adoption of Christianity, Scandinavian and Norman conquests of the British colonialism and trade and cultural relations served to increase immensely the English vocabulary.
The majority of these borrowings are fully assimilated in English in their pronunciation, grammar, spelling and can be hardly distinguished from native words.
The tern source of borrowing should be distinguished from the tern origin of borrowing. The first should be applied to the language from which the borrowing was taken into English. The second, on the other hand, refers to the language to which the word may be traced. Thus the word paper < Fr papier < Lat papyrus < Gr papyrus has French as its source of borrowing and Greek as its origin.
English continues to take in foreign words, but now the quantity of borrowings is not so abundant as it was before. All the more so, English now has become a giving language, it has become a lingua franca of the 21st century.
Borrowings can be classified according to different criteria:
a)According to the aspect which as borrowed,
b)According to the degree of assimilation,
c)According to the language from which the word was borrowed.
In the classification described in this work only the main languages from which words were borrowed into English are described, such as Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German and Russian.
There are the following groups: phonetic borrowings, translation loans, semantic borrowings, morphemic borrowings.
Phonetic borrowings are the most characteristic ones in all languages, they are called loan words proper. Words are borrowed with their spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Then they undergo assimilation, each sound in the borrowed word is substituted by the corresponding sound of the borrowing language. In some cases the spelling is changed. The position of the stress is very often influenced by the phonetic system of the borrowing language. The paradigm of the word, and sometimes the meaning of the borrowed word are also changed. Such words as labour, travel, table, chair, people are phonetic borrowings from French; apparatchik, nomenklatura, sputnik are phonetic borrowings from Russian; bank, soprano, duet are phonetic borrowings from Italian; Berufsverbot, Autobahn, iceberg, Ostarbaiter, lobby are phonetic borrowings from German etc.
Translation loans are word-for-word (or morpheme-for-morpheme) translation of some foreign words of expressions. In such cases the notion is borrowed from a foreign language but it is expressed by native lexical units: to take the bull by the horns( Latin), fair sex (French), living space( German), collective farm (Russian) etc. Some translation loans appeared in English from Latin already in the Old English period, e.g. Sunday (solis dies). There are translation loans from the language of Indians, such as: pipe of reace, palefaced, from German: masterpiece, homesickness, superman.
Semantic borrowings are such units when a new meaning of the unit existing in the language is borrowed. It can happen when we have two relative languages which have common words with different meanings e.g. there are semantic borrowings between Scandinavian and English, such as the meaning to live for the word to dwell which in Old English had the meaning to wander. Or else the meaning дар, подарок for the word gift which in Old English had the meaning выкуп за жену.
Semantic borrowings can appear when an English word was borrowed into some other language, developed there a new borrowed back into English, e.g. brigade was borrowed into Russian and acquired the meaning a working collective, бригада. This meaning was borrowing back into English as a Russian borrowing. The same is true of the English word pioneer.
Morphemic borrowings are borrowings of affixes which occur in the language when many words with identical affixes are borrowed from one language into another, so that the morphemic structure of borrowed words becomes familiar to the people speaking the borrowing language, e.g. we can find a lot of Romantic affixes in the English word building system, that is why there are a lot of words-hybrids in English where different morphemes have different origin, e.g. goddess (native root + Romantic suffix –ess) , beautiful (French root + English suffix –ful ), uneatable (English prefix un + English root + Romantic suffix –able), uncomfortable (English prefix un- + English prefix mis- + Scandinavian root + Romantic suffix –able) etc.
The degree of assimilation of borrowings depends on the followings factors:
a)From what group of languages the word was borrowed (if the word belongs to the same group of languages to which the borrowing language belongs it is assimilated easier)
b)In what way the word is borrowed: orally or in the written form (words borrowed orally are assimilated quicker);
c)How often the borrowing is used in the languages (the greater the frequency of its usage, the quicker it is assimilated);
d)How long the word lives in the language (the longer it lives, the more assimilated it is).
Accordingly, borrowings are subdivided into: completely assimilated, partly assimilated and non-assimilated (barbarisms).
Completely assimilated borrowings are not felt as foreign words in the language, c.f. the French word sport and the native word start. Completely assimilated verbs belong to regular verbs, e.g. correct – corrected. Completely assimilated nouns form their plural by means of s-inflexion, e.g. gate – gates. In completely assimilated French words the stress has been shifted from the last syllable to the first one, e.g. capital, service.
Semantic assimilation of borrowed words depends on the words existing in the borrowing language. As a rule, a borrowed word does not bring all its meanings into the borrowing language if it is polysemantic, e.g.
The Russian borrowing sputnik is used in English only in one of its meaning.
Partly assimilated borrowings are subdivided into the following groups:
a)Borrowings non- assimilated semantically, because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from the language of which they were borrowed, e.g. sari, sombrero, sarafan ( clothing), taiga, steppe (nature), kvass, borshch (food), shah, rajah, tsar (foreign titles), rickshaw, troika (foreign vehicles), rupee, zloty, peseta (money of different countries) etc;
b)Borrowings non-assimilated grammatically, e.g. some nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek retain their plural forms: bacillus — bacilli, phenomenon — phenomena, datum – data, genius – genii etc ;
c)Borrowings non-assimilated phonetically. Here belong words with the initial sounds [v ] and [ z ], e.g. voice, zero. In native words these voiced consonants are used only in the inter-vocal position as allophones of sounds [f ] and [ s ] ( loss-lose, life-live). Some Scandinavian borrowings have consonants and combinations of consonants which were not palatalized sounds denoted by the digraph sh, e.g. shirt) : [ k ] and [ g ] in the words: girl, get, give, kid, kill, kettle (in native words we have palatalization before the front vowels, e.g. German, child).
Some French borrowings have retained their stress on the finale syllable, e.g. police, cartoon. Some French borrowings retain special combinations of sounds, e.g. [a:] in the words camouflage, boulevard, some of them retain the combinations of sounds [wa:]:memoir, bourgeois.
In many cases it is not the sounds but the whole pattern of the word`s phonetic make-up that is different from the rest of the English vocabulary, as in some of the Italian and Spanish borrowings: confetti, incognito, macaroni, opera, sonata, soprano and tomato, potato, tobacco;
d)Borrowings can be partly assimilated graphically, e.g. in Greek borrowings y can be spelled in the middle of the word (symbol, synonym), ph denotes the sound [f] (phoneme, morpheme), ch denotes the sound [k] (chemistry, chaos), ps denotes the sound [s] (psychology).
The letters j, x, z in the initial position indicate the foreign origin of the word, e.g. jewel, zest, xylophone. Latin borrowings retain their polysyllabic structure, have double consonants, as a rule, the final consonant of the prefix is assimilated with the initial consonant of the stem ( accompany, affirmative).
French borrowings which came into English after 1650 retain their spelling, e.g. consonants p, t, s are not pronounced at the end of the word (buffet, coup, debris). Specifically French combination of the letters eau can be found in the borrowings: beau, chateau, trousseau. Some digraphs retain their French pronunciation: ch is pronounced as , e.g. chic, parachute, qu is pronounced as [k], e.g. bouquet, ou is pronounced as [u:], e.g. rouge. Some letters retain their French pronunciation, e.g. I is pronounced as [i:], e.g. chic, machine; g is pronounced as, e.g. rouge. Some French borrowings may keep diactrtitic mark: café, cliché.
Modern German borrowings also have some peculiarities in their spelling: common nouns are spelling with a capital letter, e.g. Autobahn, Lebensraum, some vowels and digraphs retain their German pronunciation: a is pronounced as [a:], e.g. Dictat, u is pronounced as [u:], e.g. Kuchen, au is pronounced as [au] e.g. Hausfrau, ei is pronounced as [ai], e.g. Reich. Some consonants are also pronounced in the German way: s before a vowel is pronounced as [z], e.g. Sitskrieg, v is pronounced as [f], e.g. Volkswagen, w is pronounced as [v], ch is pronounced as[ h], e.g. Kuchen.
Non-assimilated borrowings (barbarisms) are borrowings which are used by Englishmen rather seldom and are non-assimilated, e.g. addio (Italian), tete-a-tete (French) dolce vita (Italian), duende, ( Spanish), ad libitum (Latin), ciao (Italian), coup d`etat (French) and many others.
Among words of Romanic origin borrowed from Latin during the period when the British Isles were a part of the Roman Empire, there are such words as: street, port, wall etc. Many Latin and Greek words came into English during the Adoption of Christianity in the 6th century. At this time the Latin alphabet was borrowed which ousted the Runic alphabet. These borrowings are usually called classical borrowings. Here belong Latin words: alter, cross, dean, and Greek words: church, angel, devil, anthem.
Latin and Greek borrowings appeared in English during the Middle English period due to the Great Revival of Learning. These are mostly scientific words because Latin was the the language of science at the time. These words were not used as frequently as the words of the Old English period, therefore some of them were partly assimilated grammatically, e.g. formula – formulae. Here also belong such words: memorandum, minimum, maximum, veto etc.
Classical borrowings continue to appear in Modern English as well. Mostly they are words formed with the help of Latin and Greek morphemes. There are quite a lot of them in medicine (appendicitis, aspirin), in chemistry (acid, valency, alkali), in technology (antenna, biplane, airdrome, engine), in politics (socialist, militarism), names of sciences (zoology, physics). In philology most terms are of Greek origin (homonym. Archaism, lexicography).
The largest group of borrowings are French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the Normal conquest. French influenced not only the vocabulary of English but also its spelling, because documents were written by French scribes as the ruling class was French. Runic letters, remaining in English after the Latin alphabet was borrowed, were substituted by Latin letters and combinations of letters, e.g. v was introduced for the voiced consonant [ v] instead of f in the intervocal position (lufian – love), the digraph ch was introduced to denote the sound [ t] instead of the letter c (cest – chest), before front vowels where it had been palatalized, the digraph sh was introduced instead of the combination sc to denote the sound [ l] (scipu-ship), the digraph th was introduced instead of the Runic letters, e.g. this, thing, the letter y was introduced instead of the Runic letter to denote the sound [ j] (3et-yet), the digraph qu substituted the combination cw to denote the combination of sounds [ kw] (cwen-queen), the digraph ou was introduced to denote the sound [ u:], e.g. house (The sound [ u:] was later on diphthongized and is pronounced [ au] in native words and full assimilated borrowings). As it was difficult for French scribes to copy English texts they substituted the letter u before v, m, n and the digraph th by the letter o to escape the combination of many vertical lines (sune-son, luvu-love).
There are the following semantic groups of French borrowings:
a)Words relating to government: administer, empire, state, government;
b)Words relating to military affairs: army, war, banner, soldier, battle;
c)Words relating to jurisprudence: advocate, petition, inquest, sentence, barrister;
d)Words relating to fashion: luxury, coat, collar, lace, pleat, embroidery;
e)Words relating to jewelry: topaz, emerald, pearl;
f)Words relating to food and cooking: lunch, dinner, appetite, to roast, to stew.
Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through French literature, but they were not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:
a) Words relating to literature and music: belle-lettres, conservatoire, brochure, nuance, pirouette, vaudeville;
b)Words relating to military affairs: corps, echelon, fuselage, manoeuvre;
c)Words relating to buildings and furniture: entresol, chateau, bureau;
d)Words relating to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine.
Cultural and trade relations between Italy and England brought many Italian words into English. The earliest Italian borrowings came into English in the 14th century, it was the word bank (from the Italian banko-bench) Italian money-lenders and money-changers sat in the streets on benches. When they suffered losses they turned over their benches, it was called banco rotta from which the English word bankrupt originated. In the 17th century some geological terms were borrowed: volcano, granite, bronze, lava. At the same time some political terms were borrowed: manifesto, bulletin.
But mostly Italian is famous for its influence in music and in all European languages musical terns were borrowed from Italian: alto, baritone, basso, tenor, falsetto, solo, duet, trio, quartet, opera, operetta, libretto, piano, violin.
Among the 20th century Italian borrowings we can mention: gazette, incognito, autostrada, fiasco, Fascist, dilettante, grotesque, graffiti etc.
Spanish borrowings came into English mainly through its American variant. There are the followings semantic groups of them:
a)Trade terms: cargo, embargo;
b)Names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar;
c)Names of vegetables and fruit: tomato, potato, tobacco, cocoa, banana, ananas, apricot etc.
English belongs to the Germanic group of languages and there are borrowings from Scandinavian, German and Dutch languages, though their number is much less than the number of borrowings from Romanic languages.
There are some 800 words borrowed from German into English. Some of them have classical roots, e.g. in some geological terms, such as: cobalt, bismuth, zinc, quarts, gneiss, wolfram. There were also words denoting objects used in everyday which were borrowed from German: iceberg, lobby, rucksack, Kindergarten etc.
In the period of the Second World War the following languages units were borrowed: Volkssturm, Luftwaffe, SS-man, Bundeswehr, gestepo, gas chamber and many others. After the Second World War the followings words were borrowed: Berufsverbot, Volkswagen, Gaistarbaiter, Ostarbaiter etc.
Besides the two main groups of borrowings (Romanic and Germanic) there are also borrowings from a lot of other languages. We shall speak about Russian borrowings, borrowings from the languages which belongs to Slavonic languages.
There were constant contacts between England and Russia and they borrowed words from one languages into the other. Among early Russian borrowings there are mainly words connected with trade relations, such as: rouble, copeck, pood, starlet, vodka, sable, and also words relating to nature, such as: taiga, tundra, steppe etc.
There is also a large group of Russian borrowings which came into English through Russian Literature of the 19th century, such as: Narodnik, moujik, duma, zemstvo, volost, ukase etc, and also words which were formed in Russian with Latin roots, such as: nihilist, intelligenzia, Decembrist etc.
After the October Revolution many new words appeared in Russian. They were connected with the new political system, new culture, and many of them were borrowed into English, e.g. collectivization, udarnik, Komsomol etc and also translation loans, e.g. shock worker, collective farm, five-year plan, Young Communist League, Soviet power etc.
One more group of Russian borrowings is connected with perestroika, such as: glasnost, nomenklatura, apparatchik etc.
Picture 1 – Drawing in the lexicon of English
It often happens that, denoting an important new concept, the word is not borrowed in any one language, and in many languages. This creates an international fund of vocabulary, which includes the international language of different areas of human activity: politics, philosophy, science, technology, art, and many abstract words.
International or international words, taken from the same source, have graphics and sound similarities, coinciding to some extent in the sense, as it were, are the common property of a number of languages. Most of them are the result of the parallel enrichment of modern languages at the expense of the ancient language, that is, Latin and Greek (democracy, proletarian, philosophy, atom, satellite, synonym, rhythm). Another part comes from the modern languages:
Soviet, kolkhoz, sputnik — in Russian (from the USSR)
Revolution, bourgeois — the French
Sonata, soprano — from the Italian
By international words are not related correspondence availability, which in some languages is the result of relationship of these languages and their origin from one language — the basics:
Eng. mother him. Mutter. Russian. mother
Eng. nose it. Nase. Russian. nose
Eng. goose it. Hans. Russian. goose
Thus, internationalisms appeared either as a result of borrowing by one language from another, either by drawing them out of a third language.
International words, is identical in meaning, are rare. Meanwhile pseudo international words do not fully comply or even do not match.
Semantic inconsistencies often associated with that word in one language may have more general significance, and in the other — more specific. Semantic relationships between the international words are matched can be:
• complete semantic compliance;
• a complete mismatch of values;
• partial incompatibility.
The group full of inconsistencies include «words, not quite similar in shape, but can cause spurious associations and identify with each other, despite the differences in their actual values.» For example, the word humanity (Wed. an act of humanity; to treat smb. With humanity) is translated into Russian the word humanity, but humanity.
There are two variants of partial inconsistencies:
1. Russian word the same as the English, but only in one of its several meanings;
2. A Russian word has values that are not in compliance with his English.
So, having studied English history, having made the careful etymological analysis of loan words in English, I can draw certain conclusions.
First, foreign-language loans are one of important types of enrichment of dictionary structure of English. During the studying and the analysis their attention of the researcher has to be paid not only to when and from what language they were borrowed, but also on what evolution did after loan and what caused changes in the words which were already earlier existing in English. Secondly, lexical spheres in which came during the different periods of loan from these or those languages, are indicative for that economic, political, cultural, etc. communications which existed at the English people with the people carriers of these languages. Processes of assimilation of these words are natural and caused by specific features of English. Having examined numerous works of scientists in the field of a lexicology, I join opinion of those who considered that, despite high percent of loans, English it is impossible to classify, as language of the international origin or as one of the Romance. The local element contains a huge number of words, and the grammatical structure remained untouched. It is known that lexical loans are one of sources of formation of new words. Their studying allows to track complexity of language processes, an interlacing of the internal and external phenomena in language, impact of the last on various links of language structure.
Words or sentences