История Лондона

The history of London begins with the landing of the Romans of the British Isles. In order to crossed over to the other side of the Thames, the army under the leadership of Aulus Plautius built a bridge over the river. Roman settlement on the Northern shore of the Thames, which was named Londinium, becomes the center of trade. About 200 years the city was surrounded by the fortress wall, which is almost the Millennium determined its size. After the fall of the Roman Empire London went into decline, the population has dropped sharply, the buildings were destroyed.

In the beginning of VII century the city started to revive. Approximately 604 year built the first St. Paul’s Cathedral (St. Paul’s Cathedral). In the IX century London, once again a thriving centre of trade, becomes the prey of the Vikings.

At the Eastern borders of the city loom dark tower tower. Almost nine centuries stands here this powerful fortress. When in the XI century the Normans invaded the territory of the British Isles, William the Conqueror began to build a fortress near the walls of London, not only in order to keep under control the mouth of the Thames, but to warn of the rebellious citizens, whose independence has long aroused fears of the rulers of England.

For many years of its history the tower served different functions. In the middle ages in its walls were minted in the coin. Later there were kept the paper of the state archive and was Observatory, until it is transferred to Greenwich. Here was located the oldest in the London zoo. And already from the very beginning of its existence, the tower of London, like many other medieval castles, served not only a fortress and a Palace, and a prison.

In 1176 built the first stone bridge of London (London Bridge), which was the only one in the city until 1739.

During the reign of Elizabeth I of the population of London for 40 years doubles, London blooms. In 1560, is based Royal Exchange, in 1599 was built The Globe Theatre, in which dominated most of the plays of Shakespeare. In 1631 architect Айниго Джонсдо creates Covent Garden piazza, in the first quarter, created according to a special plan. But in 1666, almost all the buildings of London kills вGreat Fire).

In the XIX century the population of London increased from 1 million in the beginning of up to 6 million at the end of the century. Victorian London is a city of contrasts: the new home of industrial barons and huge blocks of the urban poor. One of the main, but the minor buildings of that time — the city sewage system, about 2,100 kilometers of tunnels and pipes for the withdrawal of the uncleanness of the city. Due to this almost ceased outbreaks of cholera and sharply decreased mortality.

In 1829 by Sir Robert Peel organizes the city police, and it is in his honor police called Bobby.

The first city railway road was paved from London Bridge to Greenwich in 1836. Then were constructed railway stations are Euston (1837), Paddington (1838), Fenchurch Street (1841), Waterloo (1848) and King’s Cross (1850). In 1863, was already opened the first line of the London underground, connecting Paddington and Farringdon Road. The project was very successful, and the construction of the underground in London became develop rapidly. And in 1906 along the lines of the London underground to the first electric train.

The famous clock tower known as big Ben (Big Ben), was built in 1859. The origin of the name is not known, but really big Ben is not the tower and not the clock and the bell of the clock. The first buses took to the streets of London in 1904. The first double-Decker red buses went out into the streets of London in 1956.