Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
Центр образования №1927
Научно-практическая конференция учащихся
Ученика 9 «Б» класса
Автор работы: Беккер Дмитрий
Руководитель проекта: Иванова Н.В.
Travelling is one of the most popular leisure activities all over the world. In many countries tourism is an important business and brings considerable part of income. So the aim of my work was to study the opportunities of Russia from that point of view and to draw students’ attention to its tourist attractions. During my work I had to solve the following problems:
to find out the travelling preferences of the students;
to choose some places in Russia that can be interesting for tourism;
to study information about these places;
to attract students’ attention to these places.
I decided to avoid such popular tourist attractions as Moscow and St. Petersburg and to study some faraway places as the Caucasus, the Altai and lake Baikal. The information was taken from the Russian guide-books (see the list below) and the Internet.
Tourism is very popular nowadays, especially among the young people. So, the first step of my work was to study the students’ travelling preferences. 57 students aged 12 to 16 and 7 adults took part in the survey. They were asked the same question: ‘What country do you prefer for travelling?’ They had to choose from 25 countries. Then the countries were united according to the region they belong to. For example, France, Finland, Italy and so on were united in one group – Europe. All the answers for the groups were summed up.
The results of the survey are displayed in the diagram below (Diagram 1). You can see that only 3% of the respondents choose Russia as an appropriate country for travelling. The main reasons are bad roads and traffic jam. Also, most of respondents are sure that travelling abroad is more comfortable and safe.
People use different kinds of transport for travelling: planes, trains, cars. We often accuse Russia of bad roads and traffic jam. Do you think, there’s no jamming abroad? Well, here you can see Katmandu, the capital of Nepal. By the way, some people go on the roofs of the buses.
Kathmandu (Nepali: काठमांडौ [kɑːʈʰmɑːɳɖuː]; Nepal Bhasa: येँ देय्) is the capital and, with close to one million inhabitants, the largest metropolitan city of Nepal. The city is the urban core of the Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayas, which contains two sister cities: Patan, 5 kilometres to its south and Bhaktapur, 12 kilometres to its east, and a number of smaller towns. It is also acronymed as ‘KTM’ and named ‘tri-city’. In the last census in 2001, the city of Kathmandu had 671,846 inhabitants. Population estimates for 2005 were 790,612 and for 2010 they stood at 989,273. The municipal area is 50.67 square kilometres and the population density is 19,500 per km². The city stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres in the bowl-shaped valley in central Nepal surrounded by four major hills: Shivapuri, Phulchowki, Nagarjun and Chandragiri. Kathmandu valley is part of three districts, Kathmandu District, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District, with the highest population density in the country and accounting for about 1/15 of its population.
Kathmandu, as the gateway to Nepal Tourism, is the nerve centre of the country’s economy. With the most advanced infrastructure among urban areas in Nepal, Kathmandu’s economy is tourism centric accounting for 3.8% of the GDP in 1995–96 (had declined since then due to political unrest but has picked up again).
The city’s rich history is nearly 2000 years old, as inferred from an inscription in the valley. Its religious affiliations are dominantly Hindu followed by Buddhism. People of other religious beliefs also live in Kathmandu giving it a cosmopolitan culture. Nepali is the common language of the city, though many speak the Nepal Bhasa as it is the center of the Newar (meaning: citizens of Nepal) people and culture.
English is understood by the educated population of the city. Besides a significant number of the population speaks any of the foreign languages like : Hindi, French, German, Chinese, Hebrew, Korean etc. The literacy rate is 98% in the city.
From the point of view of tourism, economy and cultural heritage, the sister cities of Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur are integral to Kathmandu. The cultural heritage recognition under the World Heritage list of the UNESCO has recognized all the monuments in the three cities as one unit under the title “Kathmandu Valley-UNESCO World Heritage Site.
And this is Mongolia. A lot of yaks prevent the car from continuing its way. As for the roads, well, abroad they aren’t always very good either. Sometimes there are no bridges. Well, this time the travellers were lucky, but maybe it’s safer to use a such traditional kind of transport as horses.
Winter has its own traditional transport – a dog sledge. Lots of polar travellers use them during their expeditions, but unfortunately these dogs can’t run more than 20 km/a day.
Sled dogs or sledge dogs are highly trained types of dog that are used to pull a sled, a wheel-less vehicle on runners also called a sledge or sleigh, over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines.
Dog-sledding has become a popular winter recreation and sport in North America and Europe. Several distinct dog breeds have been specifically bred for the purpose of pulling sleds, and there is also a long history of using other breeds or crossbreeds as sled dogs. There are two main qualities that are expected in sled dogs: endurance and speed.
Dog power has been utilized for hunting and travel for hundreds of years. As far back as the 10th century these dogs were contributing to human culture.
Dog sled teams are put together with great care. Putting a dog sled team together involves picking leader dogs, point dogs, swing dogs and wheel dogs. The lead dog is very treasured, and seldom will mushers ever let these dogs out of their sight. Indeed, trained lead dogs become part of the family household. Important too is to have powerful wheel dogs to pull the sled out from the snow. Point dogs are located behind the leader dogs, swing dogs between the point and wheel dogs, and team dogs are all other dogs in between the wheel and swing dogs and are selected for their endurance, strength and speed as part of the team.
But if you want to see really wild nature, you’ll have to forget about any transport at all and go on foot. And then you’ll see a lot of lakes, rocks and flowers, especially in the mountains. While walking, you will remember those people, who are waiting for you.
I’ll return in spring without warning
When the garden blossoms, white as snow.
Please don’t wake me early in the morning,
As you did before, eight years ago.
Please don’t teach me how to say my prayers!
There is no way back to what is gone.
You’re my only joy, support and praise
And my only flare shining on.
Please forget about your pain and fear,
Please don’t worry over me a lot
Don’t go out to the roadside, dear,
Wearing your shabby overcoat.
The higher you go, the less flowers you can see.
The Caucasus is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe’s highest mountain (Mount Elbrus).
Politically, the Caucasus region is separated between Northern and Southern parts.
In Greek mythology the Caucasus, or Kaukasos, was one of the pillars supporting the world. After presenting man with the gift of fire, Prometheus (or Amirani in Georgian version) was chained there by Zeus, to have his liver eaten daily by an eagle as punishment for defying Zeus’ wish of not giving the «secret of fire» to humans.
The Roman poet Ovid placed Caucasus in Scythia and depicted it as a cold and stony mountain which was the abode of personified hunger. The Greek hero Jason sailed to the west coast of the Caucasus in pursuit of the Golden Fleece, and there met Medea, a daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis.
All the birds have flown up and gone;
A lonely cloud floats leisurely by.
We never tire of looking at each other
Only the mountain and I.
These white poppies can survive in severe conditions of big altitudes, till three thousand metres above the sea level. If you climb higher, you’ll see nothing but stone cliffs, ice and snow. The temperature is below zero even in summer, and the wind is so strong that it’s difficult to keep your balance .
Here you can see the highest mountain in Europe, Elbrus.
Mount Elbrus is an inactive volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Mt. Elbrus’s peak is the highest in the Caucasus, in Russia. While there are differing authorities on how the Caucasus are distributed between Europe and Asia, many sources agree that Elbrus is also the highest mountain in all of Europe. Mt. Elbrus (west summit) stands at 5,642 metres ; the east summit is slightly lower at 5,621 metres .
Elbrus stands 20 km north of the main range of the Greater Caucasus and 65 km south-southwest of the Russian town of Kislovodsk. Its permanent icecap feeds 22 glaciers, which in turn give rise to the Baksan, Kuban, and Malka Rivers.
Elbrus sits on a moving tectonic area, and has been linked to a fault. Apparently, Elbrus has a «deep» supply of magma that resides underneath it.
The volcano is currently considered inactive, as no eruptions have ever been recorded. According to the Global Volcanism Program the last eruption took place between 0 and 100 AD. Evidence of recent volcanism includes several lava flows on the mountain, which look fresh, and roughly 260 square kilometres of volcanic debris.
The longest flow extends 24 kilometres down the northeast summit,
indicative of a large eruption. There are still more various signs of activity still present on the volcano, including solfataric activity and hot springs. The western summit has a well preserved volcanic crater about 250 m in diameter.
There are several Elbrus climbing routes. The Normal Route is the easiest, safest and fastest on account of the cable car and chairlift system which operates from about 9am till 3pm. Starting for the summit at about 2am from the Diesel Hut should allow just enough time to get back down to the chairlift if movement is efficient. A longer ascent Kiukurtliu Route starts from below the cable-way Mir station and heads west over glacier slopes towards the Khotiutau pass.
Climbing Elbrus from other directions is a tougher proposition because of lack of permanent high facilities. Douglas Freshfield always maintained that a route from the east up the Iryk valley, Irykchat glacier and over the Irykchat pass (3667m) on to snowfields below long rock ribs of the east spur would become the shortest and most used approach.
Three permits are required for climbing. Foreigners need a Border Zone Permit to be in any area south of Baksan. Prielbrusie National Park Permit is required for access to the park. Foreigners also must be registered in OVIR (Visa and Registration department) in Tyrnyauz.
It’s so pleasant to see again the streams of water instead of ice, to see the lakes, the flowers and the waterfalls. The waterfalls are maybe one of the most grand sights in the mountains. Behind the falling water there’s a dry cave, and you can enjoy the view of the surrounding landscapes through the curtain of falling water. You can admire the waterfalls for a long time, especially if you don’t have to go down, fallowing the stream. Then you’ll realize that the waterfalls are not only beautiful, but wet and cold, slippery and dangerous.
So probably next time you’ll prefer some more quiet place. Lake Baikal is a unique lake with fragile nature. It’s marvelous both in fine and stormy weather and at any time of the day.
Located in the south of the Russian region of Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast, it is the most voluminous freshwater lake in the world, containing roughly 20% of the world’s unfrozen surface fresh water.
At 1,642 metres , Lake Baikal is the deepest and among the clearest of all lakes in the world. Similar to Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long crescent shape with a surface area of 31,722 km2, less than that of Lake Superior or Lake Victoria. Lake Baikal is home to more than 1,700 species of plants and animals, two thirds of which can be found nowhere else in the world and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is also home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of Lake Baikal, rearing goats, camels, cattle and sheep, where the regional temperatures vary from a minimum of −19 °C (−2 °F) in winter to maximum of 14 °C (57 °F) in summer. Lake Baikal is nicknamed «Older sister of Sister Lakes «.
Lake Baikal is rich in biodiversity. It hosts 1,085 species of plants and 1,550 species and varieties of animals. More than 80% of the animals are endemic. Epischura baikalensis is endemic to Lake Baikal and the dominating zooplankton species there, making up 80 to 90 percent of total biomass. The Baikal Seal or nerpa is found throughout Lake Baikal. It is one of only three entirely freshwater seal populations in the world, the other two being subspecies of Ringed Seal. Perhaps the most important local species is the omul , a smallish endemic salmonid. It is caught, smoked and then sold widely in markets around the lake.
Of particular note are the two species of golomyanka or Baikal oil fish . These long-finned, translucent fish normally live in depths of 200–500 m and are the primary prey of the Baikal seal, representing the largest fish biomass in the lake. The Baikal grayling, a fast swimming salmonid, popular among anglers and the Baikal sturgeon, are both important endemic species with commercial value. The lake also hosts rich endemic fauna of invertebrates. Among them turbellarian worms, snails and amphipod crustaceans are particularly diverse.
The watershed of Lake Baikal has numerous flora species represented. The marsh thistle, Cirsium palustre, is found here at the eastern limit of its geographic range.
Several organizations are carrying out natural research projects on Lake Baikal. Most of them are governmental or associated with governmental organizations. The Baikal Research Centre is an independent research organization carrying out environmental educational and research projects at Lake Baikal.
In July 2008, Russia sent two small submersibles, Mir-1 and Mir-2, to descend 1,592 m to the bottom of Lake Baikal to conduct geological and biological tests on its unique ecosystem. Although originally reported as being successful, they did not set a world record for the deepest fresh water dive, reaching a depth of only 1,580 m . That record is currently held by Anatoly Sagalevich, at 1,637 m (also in Lake Baikal aboard a Pisces submersible in 1990). Russian scientist and federal politician, Artur Chilingarov, the leader of the mission, also took part in the Mir dives.
The lake, called «the Pearl of Siberia», drew investors from the tourist industry as energy revenues sparked an economic boom. In 2007, the Russian government declared the Baikal region a special economic zone. The popular resort of Listvyanka is home to the seven-story Hotel Mayak. At the northern part of the lake Baikalplan (a German NGO) built together with Russians in 2009 the Frolikha Adventure Coastline Track a 100 km long Long-distance trail as example for a sustainable development of the region. Lake Baikal was also declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996. Rosatom plans to build a laboratory in Lake Baikal, in conjunction with an international uranium plant and to invest $2.5 billion in the region and create 2,000 jobs in the city of Angarsk.
The first European to reach the lake is said to be Kurbat Ivanov in 1643.
In the past, Lake Baikal was respectfully referred to by many Russians as the «Baikal Sea» , rather than merely «Lake Baikal» . This usage is attested already on the late-17th century maps by Semyon Remezov. To these days, the strait between the western shore of the Lake and the Olkhon Island is called Maloye More , i.e. «the Little Sea».
In autumn the water striking the crags freezes and creates amazing ice caves with lots of columns and sparkling corridors. Here you can see Lake Baikal in winter. Some people call Lake Baikal the sea, and it really looks like a sea, though it is smaller.
The Sea of Okhotsk is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaidō to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast (including the Shantar Islands) along the west and north. The northeast corner is Shelikhov Gulf. It is named after Okhotsk, the first Russian settlement in the Far East.
The Russian explorers Ivan Moskvitin and Vassili Poyarkov were the first Europeans to visit the Sea of Okhotsk (and, probably, the island of Sakhalin) in the 1640s. The Dutch captain Maarten Gerritsz Vries in the Breskens entered the Sea of Okhotsk from the south-east in 1643, and charted parts of the Sakhalin coast and Kurile Islands, but failed to realize that either Sakhalin or Hokkaido are islands.
The first and foremost Russian settlement on the shore was the port of Okhotsk, which relinquished commercial supremacy to Ayan in the 1840s. The Russian-American Company all but monopolized the commercial navigation of the sea in the first half of the 19th century.
The Second Kamchatka Expedition under Vitus Bering systematically mapped the entire coast of the sea, starting in 1733. Jean-François de La Pérouse and William Robert Broughton were the first non-Russian European navigators known to have passed through these waters other than Maarten Gerritsz Vries. Ivan Krusenstern explored the eastern coast of the Sakhalin in 1805. Mamiya Rinzō and Gennady Nevelskoy determined that the Sakhalin was indeed an island separated from the mainland by a narrow strait. The first detailed summary of the hydrology of the sea was prepared and published by Stepan Makarov in 1894.
During the Cold War, the Sea of Okhotsk was the scene of several successful U.S. Navy operations (including Operation Ivy Bells) to tap Soviet Navy undersea communications cables. These operations were documented in the book Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. The sea (and surrounding area) were also the scene of the Soviet PVO Strany attack on Korean Air Flight 007 in 1983. The Soviet Pacific Fleet used the Sea as a ballistic missile submarine bastion, a strategy that Russia continues.
In the Japanese language, the sea has no traditional Japanese name despite its close location to the Japanese territories and is called Ohōtsuku-kai (オホーツク海), which is a transcription of the Russian name.
The Sea of Okhotsk was a hotbed for whaling in the mid-19th century. Beginning in 1845, American whaleships began hunting right whales in the southeastern part of the Sea of Okhotsk near the Kurile Islands. The first bowheads were caught in 1847; from 1849 bowheads dominated the catch. Between 1850 and 1853 the majority of the fleet focused their efforts on bowheads in the Bering Strait region. Following poor catches there, whaleships began shifting their attention to the stock of bowhead whales in the Sea of Okhotsk. In 1854 alone some 160 whaleships visited the region; the following year more than 130 ships. The next year, 1856, nearly 150 ships sailed to the Okhotsk. By 1857, the number of ships had declined to a little over 100. With declining catches from 1858 to 1860 the fleet shifted its focus back to the Bering Strait region. Many of the ships converged on the Shantar Islands, anchoring within the archipelago’s many sheltered bays. On July 28, 1854 the New Bedford ship Isabella reported ninety-four ships in sight from her deck. A few days later the Lexington, of Nantucket, reported one hundred whaleboats were about chasing whales. Ships continued to hunt whales in the Sea of Okhotsk until the early 20th century.
This is the Sea of Okhotsk, and everything is larger there: the cliffs are higher, the breaker is stronger, the grass is so long that it’s easy to hide in it. You might not realize the presence of something dangerous, until you see the footprints on the road. The tiger was there not long ago. Is it hungry? Is it waiting for you on the road or will it come at night when you sleep? Anyway you’re lucky if you don’t see it. It’s better to admire sea creatures such as starfish and sea-urchins.
Starfish or sea stars are echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
Starfish are among the most familiar of marine animals and possess a number of widely known traits, such as regeneration and feeding on mussels. Starfish possess a wide diversity of body forms and feeding methods. The extent that Asteroidea can regenerate varies with individual species
The Asteroidea occupy several important roles throughout ecology and biology. Sea stars, such as the Ochre sea star have become widely known as the example of the keystone species concept in ecology. The tropical Crown of Thorns starfish are voracious predators of coral throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Other starfish, such as members of the Asterinidae, are frequently used in developmental biology.
There are about 1,800 known living species of sea star, and they occur in all of the Earth’s oceans. The greatest variety of sea stars is found in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Areas known for their great diversity include the tropical-temperate regions around Australia, the tropical East Pacific, and the cold-temperate water of the North Pacific (California to Alaska). Asterias is a common genus found in European waters and on the eastern coast of the United States; Pisaster, along with Dermasterias («leather star»), are usually found on the western coast. Habitats range from tropical coral reefs, kelp forests to deep-sea floor, although none of them live within the water column; all species of sea star found are living as benthos. Echinoderms need a delicate internal balance in their body; no sea stars are found in freshwater environments.
Sea urchins or urchins are small, spiny, globular animals which constitute the class Echinoidea. They inhabit all oceans. Their shell, or «test», is round and spiny, typically from 3 to 10 centimetres across. Common colors include black and dull shades of green, olive, brown, purple, and red. They move slowly, feeding mostly on algae.
The name «urchin» is an old name for the round spiny hedgehogs that sea urchins resemble.
Population density varies by habitat with more dense populations being found in barren areas as compared to kelp stands. Even in these barren areas, greatest densities are also found in shallow water. Populations are also generally found in deeper water if waves action is present. Density also decrease in winter when storms cause them to seek protection in cracks and around larger underwater structures. The shingle urchin which lives on exposed shorelines is particularly resistant to wave action.
Sea urchin is one of the favorite foods of sea otters and is also the main source of nutrition for wolf eels. Left unchecked, urchins devastate their environment, creating what biologists call an urchin barren, devoid of macroalgae and associated fauna. Sea otters have re-entered British Columbia, dramatically improving coastal ecosystem health.
For some species of sea-urchins the Ohotskoe Sea is the only habitat. And of course to admire huge butterflies is better than to meet a huge tiger.
In the mountains to run across the wild animal is not so shocking. This is a glutton, it is as big as a dog. This animal is rather rare, it doesn’t let people to approach it. Here you can see its footprints.
The wolverine, also referred to as glutton, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae . It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more closely resembling a small bear than other mustelids. The wolverine has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size, with the documented ability to kill prey many times its size.
The wolverine can be found primarily in remote reaches of the Northern boreal forests and subarctic and alpine tundra of the Northern hemisphere, with the greatest numbers in the U.S. state of Alaska, northern Canada, the Nordic countries of Europe, and throughout western Russia and Siberia. Their populations have experienced a steady decline since the 19th century in the face of trapping, range reduction and habitat fragmentation, such that they are essentially absent in the southern end of their European range. It is, however, estimated that large populations remain in North America and northern Asia. Wolverines are solitary animals.
The world’s total wolverine population is unknown. The animal exhibits a low population density and requires a very large home range. The range of a male wolverine can be more than 620 km2, encompassing the ranges of several females which have smaller home ranges of roughly 130–260 km2 . Adult wolverines try for the most part to keep non-overlapping ranges with adults of the same sex. Radio tracking suggests an animal can range hundreds of miles in a few months.
Female wolverines burrow into snow in February to create a den, which is used until weaning in mid-May. Areas inhabited nonseasonally by wolverines are thus restricted to zones with late-spring snowmelts. This fact has led to concern that global warming will shrink the ranges of wolverine populations.
And this is marmot. It is very fearful, but not so rare. In the mountains you can often see its holes.
Marmots are generally large ground squirrels. Those most often referred to as marmots tend to live in mountainous areas such as the Alps, northern Apennines, Eurasian steppes, Carpathians, Tatras, and Pyrenees in Europe and northwestern Asia; the Rocky Mountains, Black Hills, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in North America; and the Deosai Plateau in Pakistan and Ladakh in India.
Marmots typically live in burrows (often within rockpiles, particularly in the case of the Yellow-bellied marmot), and hibernate there through the winter. Most marmots are highly social, and use loud whistles to communicate with one another, especially when alarmed.
Marmots mainly eat greens and many types of grasses, berries, lichens, mosses, roots and flowers.
Summer is amazing time for travelling, but autumn is even more colourful.
The golden birch-tree grove has fallen silent
Its merry chatter having stopped afore,
The cranes up there flying over, sullen,
Have nobody to pity any more.
Whom should they pity? Each is just a trotter.
One comes and goes and leaves for good gain.
The moon and hempen bush above the water
Remember all those perished, filled with pain.
I don’t regret the days that I discarded,
I don’t feel sorry for the lilac of my soul.
The purple rowan burning in the garden
Can’t warm and comfort anyone at all.
The rowan will maintain its coloration.
The grass exposed to heat will not decease,
I drop my words of sorrow and vexation
The way a tree drops quietly its leaves.
And if some day the wind of time intended
To rake them all up in a useless roll…
You ought to say: the golden grove has ended
Its lovely chatter in the prime of fall.
Our country has lots of different landscapes and beauties. But you can enjoy nature even if you don’t have any opportunity to leave Moscow. The last winter was unforgettable.
Neath lucid skies of cleanest azure
The winter’s rich and dazzling treasure,
Her gorgeous rugs of snow are spread.
The wood is etched against them darkly,
The firs, rime-starred, are green and sparkling,
In shiny mail the stream is clad.
The studying of the informational material about Russian tourist attractions persuades us that our country is a fantastic place for travelling. To draw students’ attention to these opportunities, a video clip about travelling in Russia was created. The video material was taken from private collections and wasn’t shown before. As the scripts were written in English, it can be used at the lessons of English at school.
The work can be continued in the following ways:
to study other distant places in Russia such as Karelia and the Kola Peninsula;
to create a video clip about popular tourist sights in Russia such as the Golden Ring.
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Беккаев М. Национальный парк Приэльбрусье Нальчик 2003
Волков С. Вокруг Байкала Иркутск 2006
Котляров В, Котлярова М. Живописная Кабардино-Балкария Нальчик 2006
Лебедев А. По Русскому и Монгольскому Алтаю Москва 2008
Симонов Е. Слово об Эльбрусе Москва 2004
Тиваненко А. Тайны байкальских глубин Чита 2009