Проектная работа Анорексия — проблема 21 века

Региональный лингвистический интеллектуальный конкурс школьников в рамках реализации социальной программы

«Шаг в будущее, Электросталь – 2012»

Проектная работа

Тема: «Anorexia is the problem of the XXI century»

автор: ученица 10 «А» класса

МОУ «СОШ №19»

Малютина Анастасия

руководитель: учитель

английского языка

Сидорова Е.В.

Электросталь 2012 год


1. Introduction

2. History

3. What Is Anorexia?

4. Symptoms of Anorexia

5. What is anorexia nervosa?

6. Psychoanalysis of a nervous anorexia

7. Treatment

8. Sociological poll

9. Bibliography


The condition when you stand before a mirror looking at your reflexion is familiar to each woman. You understand that it would be desirable to correct here and there. Those who are happy with their appearance on all of 100 % are units. From a problem of discontent with themselves many serious things as an anorexia, a bulimia, neurosises and so on develop. And there are people who jams stresses and, suffering from adiposity, grows stout even more because do not find in themselves forces something to change in their life. But all of us are people. We are not robots, aren’t we? Therefore weaknesses, errors, extreme measure are peculiar to us. It concerns both men, and women.

It’s only human to wish you looked different or could fix something about yourself. But when a preoccupation with being thin takes over your eating habits, thoughts, and life, it’s a sign of an eating disorder. When you have anorexia, the desire to lose weight becomes more important than anything else. You may even lose the ability to see yourself as you truly are.

Anorexia is a serious eating disorder. It can damage your health and even threaten your life. But you’re not alone. There’s help available when you’re ready to make a change. You deserve to be happy. Treatment will help you feel better and learn to value yourself.


The first mentions of voluntary refusal of food are found in the works of Avitsenny. A lot of centuries later, in 1689, Doctor R. Morton has designated voluntary refusal of meal as illness and named it nervous consumption. In the XX-th century such behavior began to consider as schizophrenia display, and later have ranked as a category of endocrine diseases. Then again it was considered as mental disease. Further it was christened as a syndrome of Tviggi, later as Barbie’s syndrome. Only in 1988 it was named a nervous anorexia.

In Russia one of the first publications on the theme of anorexia was A.A.Kiselju. In 1894 it has described as nervous anorexia of the hysterical nature.

In the late sixties the last century when leanness became fashionable and many women “has immediately sat down” on diets, in the West have started talking about «anorexia’s explosion among the population». However, without the reference to the statistical data — at that time it was not simple. According to many scientists, 60th years became the present boom for patients of this sort. In the institute of psychiatry in New York 6 persons have been hospitalized for the next five years and this figure has doubled, and in 1960 25 patients have been hospitalized already.

The explosion of anorexia among the population is expressly or by implication contacted with the «emancipation of women», their inclusion in industrial activity and wide sphere of dialogue. The modern woman has no right to enjoy natural beauty of her own body. If it occurs, the whole corporations — the pharmacological companies, fashion houses, clinics of plastic surgery etc., — erected for the last 50-80 years will shortly fail. Mass media often lobby interests of the pharmacological companies, invent all new ways of realization of commodity fetishism concerning cosmetic products and clothes. The industry of beauty for the unobstructed development has been compelled to create a coalition which includes fashion houses, fashion designers and fashionable magazines, the cosmetic and pharmacological companies. Superfluous weight of a female body has outlawed. Painful leanness has been declared by a beauty ideal. Since then, conformity to a new ideal of beauty and appeal became obsession of the majority of women. The sick system has generated a new symptom.

What Is Anorexia?

Anorexia is an eating disorder where people starve themselves. Anorexia usually begins in young people around the onset of puberty. Individuals suffering from anorexia have extreme weight loss. Weight loss is usually 15% below the person’s normal body weight. People suffering from anorexia are very skinny but are convinced that they are overweight. Weight loss is obtained by many ways. Some of the common techniques used are excessive exercise, intake of laxatives and not eating.

Anorexics have an intense fear of becoming fat. Their dieting habits develop from this fear. Anorexia mainly affects adolescent girls.

People with anorexia continue to think they are overweight even after they become extremely thin, are very ill or near death. Often they will develop strange eating habits such as refusing to eat in front of other people. Sometimes the individuals will prepare big meals for others while refusing to eat any of it.

The disorder is thought to be most common among people of higher socioeconomic classes and people involved in activities where thinness is especially looked upon, such as dancing, theater, and distance running.

Symptoms of Anorexia

There are many symptoms for anorexia; some individuals may not experience all of the symptoms. The symptoms include: body weight that is inconsistent with age, build and height (usually 15% below normal weight).

Some other symptoms of anorexia are:

Not wanting or refusing to eat in public



Brittle skin

Shortness of breath

Obsessiveness about calorie intake

What is anorexia nervosa?

The special place is occupied with a psychological anorexia. This pathological condition shown in conscious restriction of food with a view of a weight loss. Teenagers of 15 years and older suffer from this illness, more often girls. There is a persuasive representation about superfluous completeness and necessity to grow thin. For achievement of this purpose patients limit themselves in meal up to full refusal of food, apply intensive physical exercises, walking or run on long distances, accept the big doses of laxatives and diuretics. At impossibility to take out long starvation patients eat, even eat too much, but cause artificial vomiting.

Anorexia nervosa is a complex eating disorder with three key features:

refusal to maintain a healthy body weight

an intense fear of gaining weight

a distorted body image

Because of your dream of becoming fat or disgust with how your body looks, eating and mealtimes may be very stressful. And yet, what you can and can’t eat is practically all you can think about.

Thoughts about dieting, food and your body may take up most of your day — leaving little time for friends, family, and other activities you used to enjoy. Life becomes a relentless pursuit of thinness and going to extremes to lose weight.

But no matter how skinny you become, it’s never enough.

While people with anorexia often deny having a problem, the truth is that anorexia is a serious and potentially deadly eating disorder. Fortunately, recovery is possible. With proper treatment and support, you or someone you care about can break anorexia’s self-destructive pattern and regain health and self-confidence.

Types of anorexia nervosa

There are two types of anorexia. In the restricting type of anorexia, weight loss is achieved by restricting calories (following drastic diets, fasting, and exercising to excess). In the purging type of anorexia, weight loss is achieved by vomiting or using laxatives and diuretics.


Telling about the symptoms of nervous anorexia, first of all, it is sharp loss of weight. However we should not forget that the considerable weight loss accompanies variety of mental and somatic diseases. It is depression, a syndrome of the broken food and a diabetic syndrome of a stomach.

Modern researchers think that the basic symptoms of nervous anorexia are:

1) the refusal of meal;

2) the loss at least 10 % of weight of a body;

3) absence of signs of the depression;

4) the beginning of the disease aged is not more senior 35 years.

Such similar criteria as authors mark allow avoiding the uncertainty of diagnostics of anorexia. Scientists put refusal of meal, instead of a weight loss on the first place.

Psychoanalysis of a nervous anorexia.

In psychoanalytic phenomenology of anorexia the refusal of food looks only as means, meanwhile as the purpose is the certain desire. The desire can be structured it both on conscious, and on unconscious levels. On conscious the sick of anorexia wants to correspond to a certain ideal “I”. In the basic contours this imagined ideal looks as imposed, in particular weights of media, an image of feminity.

However the unconscious desire looks, more likely, as refusal of feminity. Feminity negation at anorexia has a number of features and is based on certain unconscious representations which can be reconstructed during psychoanalytic treatment of anorexia.

These representations include:

1) Primary and very early unconscious hatred to mother and to corresponding attributes of parent presence and care: hostile attacks to a parent breast and parent milk.

2) Alarms based on representations about «bad» and frightening changes with a body, occurring during puberty. It, first of all, the beginning of menstruations and corresponding transformations of a female body. The negation of own female attributes: a female body, monthly, pregnancy, own parent role.

As a rule, there are general features of sick people inherent in families. In these families there is often imperious and despotic mother who constantly suppresses the children’s will and deprives any their initiative. Such mothers differ with the big affective charge, with high level of self-affirmation and ambition. Often because of non-realized possibilities in the past they show all energy and authoritativeness in a family, using children as cover for the whims.

Fathers, as a rule, are in such families play a supporting role and possess opposite character traits: they are inactive, cowardly, gloomy, unsociable, is frequent from participation in a family. Some psychoanalysts describes fathers as «petty tyrants», noticing that in such families fathers sometimes happen psychopaths — despots, persistently interfere even with relations between the doctor and the patient, become always on the party of last. Psychoanalysis explains the occurrence of a mental anorexia «an aberration of communication a family — the child».

More particularly this illness is defined as leaving of the teenager to attract attention of eternally quarreling parents. Leaving in illness as though removes a conflict situation in a family. The family has a new center of gravity and concentration of efforts – the illness of the child. Some psychoanalysts marked at future sick of any anorexia of a problem with a food in the early childhood which practically remains with them all their life.

It is also characteristic that in families of the majority of patients the special relation to meal is marked. In this connection since childhood negative emotions on food intakes are formed as meal is always associated with violence. In the family conversations on the topic «ugliness of completeness», «refinement of taste», about the importance of corresponding esthetic education is constantly had.

A number of psychoanalysts give great value to the influence of the social environment, the standards of appearance established in children’s (teenage) groups, and also sneers of persons of an opposite sex. Sneers of associates concerning some completeness (if it is) become a basis for formation supervaluable, and then and crazy system in the period of puberty. It is known that the unripe person of the teenager is rather easily injured, and at teenage age psychogenic reactions and the deformations of the person connected with wrong education easily develop, and these reactions and changes are inclined to fixing.


Psychiatric treatment of anorexia

Psychiatric treatment begins with isolation of the patient from relatives and hospitalization in psychiatric hospital. The first, diagnostic stage is directed on liquidation of sharp deficiency of weight of a body and lasts, as a rule, 2-4 weeks. The second, medical stage is more difficult and is connected with the illness treatment in the whole. There is also a so-called non-drug therapy of these patients: a high security, violent feeding, and long stay in bed. A number of psychiatrists as the most effective methods of treatment consider insulino-coma therapy

Very often the treatment of a nervous anorexia the psychoanalysis is applied. Psychoanalytic treatment of anorexia, as a rule, is spent in more structured mode, without the use of a couch and with a support on the technicians allowing, to begin with, strengthening fragile “I” of the patient. More analytical mode in anorexia treatment is possible at late analysis stages.

This kind of treatment is long enough. The success in this work is in many respects defined by durability of a psychotherapeutic alliance between the psychoanalyst and the patient, and presence free from psychopathology of mental resources of the patient.

Sociological poll.

We decided to ask people on the theme “Anorexia is the problem of the century”. 30 people were asked: 22 were pupils and 8 were teachers. We asked 8 questions:

1. What is your sex?

2. Is the theme to «grow thin» actual for you?

3. If “yes” for what purpose?

4. Do you consider parameters 90-60-90 ideal?

5. Are you satisfied with your figure?

6. If “no” why?

7. Is the idea of anorexia familiar to you?

8. What are you ready to do to achieve an ideal figure?

We divided all into several groups: 12-14, 15-18, 30-50 years. And also the groups were divided to sexual signs to learn the opinion and awareness of the term anorexia both men and women.

Question 1. What is your sex?

Question 2. Is the theme to «grow thin» actual for you?

From these diagrams we see that for the majority of men (36 %) a theme to «grow thin» is not actual and only for 18 % it is actual. And for the majority of women this theme is actual. It is a well known fact that few men try to grow thin to correspond to the standard. You can see it on the following diagram.

Question 3. If “yes” for what purpose?

For those who answered “yes” we decided to ask for what purpose. 63 % both men and women chose to feel better, 25 % to keep fit and only 12 % for beauty. All people want to be healthy. That’s why most respondents answered “to feel better”. It was good to hear that not only men and women from 30 to 50 years want to be healthier but young boys and girls begin thinking of their health.

Question 4. Do you consider parameters 90-60-90 ideal?

The following question was connected with the ideal parameters 90-60-90. Though these parameters are not ideal in the whole world as thin men and women are not popular nowadays. But young generation of our school still thinks it is ideal. For men of 30-50 years it doesn‘t matter. For women as you can see the answers yes and no are not too differ.

Question 5. Are you satisfied with your figure?

As we can see most respondents are satisfied with their figure. But those who answered no we asked why.

Question 6. If “no” why?

50 % of men unfortunately decided to hide their real reason and answered “other” and 40 % of women chose “disproportion”. I think it is connected with their age (12-18 years) as the stereotype of an ideal figure especially for girls is still existed.

Question 7. Is the idea of anorexia familiar to you?

The next question was about the idea of anorexia. I was glad to hear that 60 % are familiar with this idea. This illness appears on television, mass media, internet, model business than bulimia as well.

Question 8. What are you ready to do to achieve an ideal figure?

Both men and women prefer going in for sport. Sport is the most effective kind of growing thin. Eating nothing is the worst method as your weight will return in the greatest quantity. Only young girls chose this answer.

That’s why we made a very useful brochure especially for those who doesn’t know the idea of anorexia and for “stupid” young girls who want to be like Barbie.


1. Могильный М.П., Юрина С.В. Будьте здоровы Ставрополь, 2000 г.

2. Большая медицинская энциклопедия, том 1.

3. Окулевский М.П., Иванова М.С. Здоровый образ жизни, издательский дом ИН-Фолио, 2002 год.

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