Job search is a long process, which needs lots of time and effort. At first, you should draw a résumé. You present the most important information about yourself in it: your background, your work experience, qualification, and special skills1. You should write your objective too, i.e. what position2 you are aiming at.
With your résumé, you start direct job search. You have a lot of possibilities. Many magazines and newspapers publish the names of companies offering job vacancies. You can send your résumé to these companies. There are also employment agencies that can help you in finding a job. It is useful to visit job fairs and career days, ask your family, relatives, friends, neighbors, or acquaintances to help you in job search. You can use Web pages on Internet, such as ww.jobs.ru or www.hro. ru and other special Web sites.
Interview is an important part in your job search. To make a good impression, you should keep the following rules. Wear proper clothes. Make sure your shoes are clean and well polished. Don’t fiddle3 with your hair, or your clothes. Don’t cross the arms. Sit up straight. Don’t wear too much jewelry. Try to keep eye contact with the key person in the meeting. It is not proper to ask about the salary4 at the first interview or criticize your former boss or company. It is not recommended to discuss personal or financial problems with the representative of the company. It is important to assure5 the company representatives that you are the right person for the position.
If you are offered a position, you can negotiate the offer and ask about your salary.
Notes:` 1special skills – дополнительные навыки (опыт или знания, которые указываются при поступлении на
работу, напр., знание иностранных языков)
2position – должность
3to fiddle – вертеть в pyкax
4salary – заработная плата
5to assure – убеждать
Since 1950, the base of Taiwan’s economy has changed largely from agriculture to industry. Most of the people now live in cities and towns and work in industry or in services. Only about 12% still work in agriculture, and farming accounts for a very small portion of the GNP1. This economic change resulted in improving the standard of living. Taiwan has the fourth highest per capita2 income in East Asia – after Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong – and its average income is 20 times that of China. The quality of life, particularly in the cities, is approaching that of Japan and other developed nations.
Taiwan’s economy improved quickly after 1950. Its industry specializes in such products as textiles, radios, television sets, tape recorders, home appliances, toys, and many other consumer goods. The Taiwan government has been promoting the development of high-technology industry, such as the production of computers, calculators, and related products, in order to be competitive3 in world markets. The main markets for Taiwan’s products are the U.S., the countries of the EU, and Japan. Exports account for more than half of Taiwan’s gross national product.
Agriculture accounts for only about 2% of Taiwan’s income. The major crops include rice, sugarcane, citrus fruits, corn, pineapple, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Large numbers of pigs and chickens are raised. Fishing and fish farming are also important.
Notes:1GNP (gross national product) – ВНП (валовой национальный продукт)
2per capita income – доход на душу населения
3competitive – конкурентоспособный
ENGLISH BANKNOTES AND COINS
The official currency of the United Kingdom is the pound sterling, which is equal to 100 pence.
English banknotes are issued by the Bank of England. As to coins, they are minted also by this state bank.
There are banknotes of the following denominations: £1, £5, £10, £20, £50, £100.
The following coins are in circulation: halfpenny, 1 penny, 2 pence, 5 pence, 10 pence, 50 pence.
On the face of English banknotes, one can read the denomination given both in figures and in words.
Then the inscription1 on the face of the banknote reads: I promise to pay the bearer2 on demand3 the sum of… And then, there are two signatures. The first signature is that of the person authorized4 by the Government and the Bank of England. The second signature is that of the Chief Cashier5.
The backs of English banknotes feature portraits of different famous people.
▪The one-pound banknote, for example, features Isaac Newton, a well-known English scientist who made a few very important discoveries including gravitation law.
▪The back of the five-pound note portrays the Duke of Wellington, a famous Irish general who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815.
▪On the back of the ten-pound note one can see Florence Nightingale, founder of the nursing profession. She volunteered as a nurse to Turkey to take care of the wounded soldiers from Crimean War, war of England and France versus Russia.
▪The back of the twenty-pound banknote features William Shakespeare, the greatest dramatist of all time.
Notes:1inscription – надпись
2bearer – предъявитель
3on demand – по требованию
4to authorize – уполномочивать
5Chief Cashier – главный кассир
PRIVATE BUSINESS IN CUBA
Enrique Nunez is a private entrepreneur, which is a rare case in Cuba. Nunez, restaurant manager, began his business with a half-century-old oven in a small flat in the centre of Havana. Now, he runs the most popular palador. (Palador is a small restaurant working in the private house).
Being famous as the place for Oscar-nominated film «Strawberry and Chocolate», the restaurant is full every night, by reservation1 only. Nunez can only dream of the time when he played dominoes with friends for hours. Now, he works seven days a week, serving customers. Among his clients were such famous people as the Queen of Spain and a film star Jack Nicholson.
Nunez’s case is rare for two reasons. Firstly, he is doing business in a communist country where the state controls more than 90% of the economy and constantly opposes capitalism. Secondly, his business is booming2 while many others have gone out of business. Foreign specialists believe that such small businesses as Nunez’s have survived3 in part because they have foreign clients and have become tourists’ attractions.
Owners of small businesses often complain4 of numerous restrictions and heavy taxes – up to $1,000 a month for a palador. Successful entrepreneurs like Nunez find themselves in a strange position, isolated because of their high earnings, and need to keep low profile5. Private business is something new for Cuba; it’s still an experiment. Society is not yet ready to accept the fact that private businessmen exist, and the businessmen are not ready to take on6 the role.
Notes:1reservation – пpeдвapитeльный зaкaз (в ресторане)
2to boom – процветать
3to survive – продолжать существовать, выживать
4to complain – жаловаться
5to keep low profile – держаться незаметно
6to take on smth – справляться с чем/либо
FAIRS AND EXHIBITIONS
The first world industrial exhibition was held in London in 1851. It was a great success. It displayed exhibits of 40 countries and the number of visitors reaches over six million.
In the commercial world today, fairs and exhibitions play an important role. Every year many international, national, and specialized exhibitions and fairs are held in different countries of the world. The number of countries and companies taking part in them is growing from year to year and the scope1 of fairs and exhibitions is becoming larger.
International trade fairs and exhibitions today are divided into two groups: specialized, concentrating on products of a particular industry, and general2 covering many different fields.
Exhibits displayed during these exhibitions show the latest achievements in different fields of industry, science, and agriculture of many countries. They offer exporters an excellent opportunity3 to show what they have for sale, to make contacts and to learn about a market quickly and easily. They are also an ideal way of advertising and sales promotion. At many exhibitions, all kinds of goods and exhibits are sold to numerous visitors.
A fair or an exhibition is always visited by both serious businessmen and the general public. Every day halls are crowed with visitors, business talks are held, a lot of transactions4 are negotiated and contracts are signed.
Fairs and exhibitions are usually held under various mottoes: «People and Progress», «Peace and Progress Through Economic Cooperation» and so on.
Notes:1scope – масштаб, размах
2general – общего характера
3opportunity – возможность
4transaction – сделка
MAZDA MOTOR CORPORATION
Mazda Motor Corporation, major manufacturer of automobiles is based in Hiroshima, Japan. It was founded by Jugiro Matsuda in 1920. At first, the company made corks and later, machine tools1. In 1931, it began producing three-wheeled trucks for export to China. The company produced weapons during World War II. The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, badly damaged the company’s plant and killed 400 of its workers. In several months after that blast, however, production of the trucks was resumed.
The company’s truck production increased steadily through the 1950s. In 1960, it introduced its first passenger car: two-seat Mazda R360 Coupe. A year later, company president Tsuneji Matsuda, son of Jugiro Matsuda, came to an agreement2 with the West German company NSU-Wankel to design and produce a rotary engine3. This engine helped Mazda establish a reputation as an innovative car company and enter the world market.
In 1967, the company introduced its first car with a rotary engine and began exporting cars to the U.S. Ford Motor Company bought 25% of Mazda’s shares4 in 1979. Three years later, the company began producing vehicles at a plant in Flat Rock, Michigan.
Mazda expanded rapidly in the early 1990s. But, because of a worldwide economic recession5, the volume of sales greatly decreased. The company lost money in 1994 and had to lay off6 more than 3,000 employees. In 1996, Ford spent $481 million to increase its stake in7 Mazda Motor Corporation to 33% from 25%.
Notes:1machine tool – станок
2to come to an agreement – заключить договор
3rotary engine – роторный двигатель
4share – акция
5recession – спад, рецессия
6to lay off – увольнять
7to increase its stake in…– чтобы увеличить свою долю в капитале…
WHAT IS THE BRAND?
Just as people have signatures1, by which they may be identified, so businesses have trademarks that distinguish2 their products. Nearly everyone knows the golden arches of McDonald’s or the wave on a Coke can or bottle.
According to a code adopted in 1963 by the IAPIP3, a trademark may consist of words, letters, numbers, names, the shape of a product or its packaging, combinations of colors. Each of these identifying symbols is a form of property4 that belongs to the company that uses it.
A brand name is one of the most common trademarks. Sometimes, a company name is used as part of a trademark (e.g. Heinz Tomato Ketchup). The names may be contrived5 (e.g. Ekonika or Sladko). Some brands have names of people. Tea brand Dilmah is composed of the parts of names Dilhan and Malik, sons of the tea producer. Some brands have mistakes in their names. Brand of vegetable oil is called Zolotaya semechka, but according to the rules of the Russian language, it should be called Zolotoye semechko.
One of the most successful brands in the world is the Barbie. It was created in 1959 for those girls who wanted to have dolls looking like young women, not babies. Barbie has had 75 professions – from astronaut to presidential candidate. In 1961, Ken – Barbie’s boyfriend – was introduced. She has little sisters and friends from different ethnic groups. Now there are 15,000 different things and costumes for Barbie. Her popularity never ends. One Barbie is bought every 2 seconds.
Notes:1signature – подпись
2to distinguish– отличать
3IAPIP (International Association for the Protection of Industrial Property) – Международная ассоциация по охране промышленной собственности
4property – собственность
5to contrive – придумывать
Te beginning of the 21st century saw great interest in business etiquette in the USA. It can be surprising, but in this era of takeout foods1 and dress-down2 Fridays, etiquette is becoming very important. The bookstores are filled with different handbooks about special features of doing business in various countries, on e-mail manners, table manners, etc. Colleges and universities are giving their students a competitive edge3 in the job market, offering special courses. Businesses are spending hundreds of thousands of dollars for seminars and workshops4 on business etiquette.
An etiquette expert Dorothy Johnson tells the story of the businessman who came to her for help after he was not employed by a big corporation. At a lunch meeting with a senior manager of the company, he sat down and immediately started eating the salad in front of him. He looked up and saw that his boss, who had not picked up his fork yet, was staring at him. «I knew right then they were going to send me out,» he said. If he knew the manners, he would have known to wait until his host started eating.
The recruiters5 do not offer jobs to candidates who salt their food before tasting, because it shows a tendency toward hasty6 decision-making, or to those who order very expensive food at restaurants.
Etiquette has not been a priority during the last two decades. Nowadays, top corporations hire specialists to teach business etiquette, which could include anything from how to place a napkin to how to hold polite dinner-table conversation.
Notes:1takeout foods – бутерброды
2to dress-down – одеваться неформально (в американских фирмах в пятницу можно приходить на работу
в джинсах и без галстука)
3competitive edge – кoнкypeнтнoe пpeимущecтвo
4workshop – пpaктичecкoe зaнятиe, мастер-класс
5recruiter – cпeциaлиcт пo найму кaдpoв
6hasty – поспешный, необдуманный
The art of collecting and studying coins, other currency, and medals is known as numismatics. A coin collector or a person who studies coins is called a numismatist. These terms are derived from the Latin word numisma, which means ‘money’. Some numismatists are professionals who appraise1, buy, and sell coins, but most collect only as a hobby.
Coin collecting as a hobby appeared more than 2,000 years ago in Greece. The private collections of 15th-and 16th-century kings and nobles2 formed the basis for the great national collections of Austria, Hungary, and France.
A good coin collection is an investment. The value of many coins increases over a period of time because the demand3 for these coins increases while their supply4 remains unchanged. Coins may be of historical importance. The words and illustrations stamped on ancient coins are often a unique source of information about the civilizations that produced them.
The easiest and most inexpensive way to start collecting coins is to begin with coins that are still in circulation5. There are many other ways for a beginner to get help in starting a collection. Books about coins and coin collecting can be found in public libraries. A beginning collector can meet other people who share6 a similar interest in coins by joining a coin club. In such clubs, collectors can get together7 for the exchange of information or even for buying and selling coins. Some clubs sponsor auctions in which coins are sold to the highest bidder8.
Notes:1to appraise – оценивать, производить оценку, устанавливать цену
2noble – дворянин
3demand – спрос
4supply – предложение
5coins in circulation – монеты, находящиеся в обращении
6to share – разделять (мнение, вкусы, интерес)
7to get together – собираться; встречаться
8highest bidder – лицо, предложившее наивысшую цену
‘Buy now, pay later’ – that is the attraction of buying on credit. In a credit transaction, goods, money, or services are given to the buyer in exchange for the promise2 to pay in the future not only the full cost of the goods, money, or services but also an extra charge – called interest – for the privilege of using credit.
The system of buying goods on credit became very common during the second half of the 20th century. Today a large proportion of all the families in Great Britain buy durable goods – television sets, washing machines, refrigerators, articles of furniture, motorcars, and motorcycles – by hire purchase. In the USA, the proportion is much higher than in Great Britain and people there spend over 10% of their income on hire purchase installments3.
The price of an article bought in this way is always higher because of interest. The buyer pays a part, perhaps 1⁄4 (one-quarter) or 1⁄3 (one-third), of the price when the goods are delivered to him. He then makes regular payments, weekly or monthly, until the full price has been paid. The seller remains the legal owner4 of the goods until the final payment has been made. In some countries, the governments control hire purchase by fixing the proportion of the first payments and the installments.
Hire purchase has its advantages5. It helps newly married couples with small incomes to furnish their homes. It increases the demand6 on goods and in this way helps trade and employment.
Notes:1hire purchase – покупка или продажа в кредит (в рассрочку)
2in exchange for the promise – в обмен на обещание
3installment – очередной взнос, взнoc в cчeт уплаты
4legal owner – законный владелец
5advantage – преимущество
6demand – спрос
Credit card is a piece of plastic about 85 mm by 54 mm, bearing the name and computer number of the holder1 and the period of availability2 as well as the signature of the holder. Any grown-up creditworthy person can be a credit card holder.
There are many kinds of credit cards. Many large shops issue their own cards to customers. There are also the all-purpose cards; among these are the bankcards (the best known are Visa and MasterCard) and the travel and entertainment cards3 (the most prominent are American Express, Carte Blanche, and Diners Club).
Bankcards were originally issued only by banks, but by the early 1990s, some cards were issued by large corporations such as General Motors or Sears, Roebuck & Co. All credit cards are accepted in many countries for all kinds of purchases – even for paying fines and hospital bills.
Travel and entertainment cards are issued by the corporations that own them. Originally intended for charging travel expenses and restaurant meals, they can now be used for many other kinds of purchases, such as for clothes and foodstuffs.
Some oil companies, such as Amoco, Mobil, Shell, and Texaco, issue credit cards that can be used to charge gasoline, tires, batteries, and services offered by gas stations. There are also plastic cards with identifying codes permitting telephone calls to be made on credit. It can be inserted into specially equipped pay phones that record the call in the caller’s account for later billing4 and allow the caller to place a call without the use of change or cash.
Notes:1holder – владелец, обладатель
2availability – гoднocть
3travel and entertainment card – карточка оплаты развлечений, туристских и деловых расходов
4billing – выписывание счета
APARTMENT RENT IS INCREASING IN MOSCOW
Nowadays Russian economy is developing, and as a result, apartment rents are growing. Every year, rents increase by 5-10%
Rents are usually very high in autumn and in summer. High level of prices can be explained by constantly growing demand1 for apartments. Besides, new apartments cost more and property owners must spend more money on Western style renovations2.
Tenants3 are prepared to pay high rent if the apartments are renovated to a high standard. That means new wallpapers, new light fittings, and new tiles. Apartments with Western-style renovation usually have expensive furniture and imported appliances4. The rent for such an apartment can reach $6,000 per month. Apartments with old wallpaper and soviet-made furniture are not so expensive.
The high-end market5 is in the area of Patriarch’s Ponds, Kropotkinskaya and Arbat. These areas are in the very center of Moscow and at the same time, they are quiet. As a rule, rent becomes lower if the apartment is far from the city center.
When people choose an apartment they take into account many factors, including how comfortable the apartment is, availability of schools and shops. First, people usually concentrate on the area, which they like. If they understand that they can’t find a proper flat for their money, they start looking in other areas.
Foreign corporations usually pay the highest rents for their employees, but now they can’t pay as much as before the 1998 crisis. At that time, rents could reach $8,000 and $10,000 per month, and these days maximum rents reach $5,000 or $6,000.
Notes:1demand – спрос
2renovation – peмoнт
3tenant – apeндaтop, вpeмeнный влaдeлeц
4appliances – бытовые приборы
5high-end market – рынок для потребителей с высокими доходами
The official currency of the United States is the dollar, which is subdivided into one hundred cents. The dollars are issued by the Federal Reserve System, established by Congress in 1913.
The dollar is named from a silver coin first minted1 in 1519 in St. Joachimsthal. This coin was called Joachimsthaler. This name was changed to thaler2 in Germany, and to dollar in England.
There are banknotes of the following denominations: $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000. On the face of American dollars, one can see the portraits of the following famous persons:
G. Washington, who became the first President of the USA after the successful war of 13 British colonies for independence;
A. Lincoln, who was President from 1861 to 1865 after the war between the northern and southern states;
A. Hamilton, a famous American political leader, who fought in the Independence War together with General G. Washington. Later, he became the first Secretary of the Treasury3;
A. Jackson, who was President from 1829 to 1837, when Texas won independence from Mexico;
U. Grant, who was President from 1869 to 1877;
B. Franklin, a very popular public figure, writer, diplomat, and scientist.
(Do you know whose portrait is featured on the face of the twenty-dollar banknote?)
On the back of banknotes, various famous buildings are featured such as:
Lincoln Monument, one of the monuments in Washington;
US Treasury Building, in Washington;
US Capitol, which houses the Senate and the House of Representatives4;
Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, where Independence of the 13 British colonies was proclaimed.
All the banknotes bear the words: In God We Trust.
Notes:1to mint – чеканить
2thaler – талер (немецкая серебряная монета)
3Secretary of the Treasury – министр финансов США
4House of Representatives – палата представителей (нижняя палата конгресса США)
BICYCLE KINGDOM IS TURNING TO CARS
People in China are fond of bicycles, but these days, they are falling in love with cars. Not many people can buy a car because it’s very expensive. The average wage a year is $759, and a car costs much more. However, a large number of businessmen and professionals getting high salaries start buying cars. The car is a symbol of high status and just a convenient means of transport.
The number of private cars is growing by 30% a year. In the financial center of Shenzhen, near Hong Kong, car sales are booming and increase by 200% a year. Many foreign car-makers (General Motors, Toyota, Citroёn and others) are trying to enter China’s car market. To avoid high import taxes, some foreign companies began producing inexpensive cars in China.
According to statistics, 3 million cars are already on the roads. Nowadays China can be compared with America of the 1950s when cars were flooding the streets of the cities. There are drive-in1 movie theatres, restaurants, banks; private driving schools; auto-service centers. Chinese without cars can hire them thanks to rental agencies2 opened in big cities.
Trying to increase car sales, the government offers low-interest loans3 and low taxes. Large sums of money are being invested into construction of highways and expressways. However, the cities and towns are not ready for a great number of cars. The streets are narrow, and there are often traffic jams4 and accidents. Most drivers have little experience; they run red lights and park on sidewalks5.
Notes: 1drive-in – «кинотеатр для автомобилистов» (фильм смотрят, не выходя из автомобиля); ресторан
(магазин, банк, мастерская) обслуживающий клиентов непосредственно в автомобиле
2rental agency – агентство по пpoкaтy
3low-interest loan – ссуда под низкий процент
4traffic jam – пробка на дороге
5sidewalk – тротуар
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION
Marriott International Inc. is one of the largest hotel and restaurant organizations in the U.S. The company, founded by John Willard Marriott in 1927, opened its first hotel in 1957. Since then, it has grown into an international company, with more than 2,300 hotels and restaurants in 60 countries. The company’s sales amounted to $19.8 billion in 2004 and its profits rose 11% to $922 million.
Marriott International plans to increase the number of its hotels in Russia. Now, this company manages four hotels in Moscow. It owns 49% of the Renaissance Moscow Hotel, and three other hotels in Moscow operate under the Marriott brand name.
Company president Bill Marriott said: «Russia is a very attractive market for hotel operators, which especially cater to1 business travelers who want and need a full range of high quality services in the hotel in order to be successful in their business.» Marriott International’s global strategy is to be represented in all big cities and resorts with their upper-tier2 hotels. Bill Marriott said that the Moscow hotels have their own customer base3 and a position in the market. The company is interested in establishing presence in St. Petersburg. It also sees some potential in mid-priced hotels in cities such as Nizhniy Novgorod, Samara, and Kazan.
Bill Marriott travels 240,000 kilometers a year visiting company enterprises. He says: «I want our colleagues to know that there really is a guy named Marriott, who cares about them, and he can drop by4 to personally tell them so. I also want to show our team that I value their work.»
Notes: 1to cater to – обслуживать
2upper-tier – высшего разряда
3customer base – клиентская база
4to drop by – заходить, заезжать
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
There are some 5 billion people in the world and the majority of them live in developing countries. A developing country is a country, in which the average standard of living is very low compared with living standards in North America and Western Europe.
Major problems facing developing countries are as follows:
▪ Low-productivity agriculture
In low-income countries, 70% or more of the labor force works on the land. Tractors and other types of mechanical farm equipment are very scarce1. The output per worker2 in agriculture is extremely low compared with that in Europe and North America.
▪ Poor natural resources
Many developing countries have very poor supplies of natural resources. Many of them have soil lacking in fertility3, large desert areas, and climates, which are not favorable to high productivity because they are too dry or too hot.
▪ A scarcity4 of fixed capital5
Most developing countries lack electricity supplies, water supplies, transport and farming equipment, good roads and railways, port facilities and other capital goods. They have very little modern technology.
▪ Large-scale unemployment
In the great majority of developing countries, the rate of population growth is very much higher than it is in developed countries. The rapid growth of population has been accompanied by a large-scale movement of people from the rural areas to the towns and cities. This has created serious unemployment problems, especially among the younger age groups. Underemployment6 is also a serious problem. For example, ten people may be employed in a job for which only six are needed.
Notes:1scarce – недостаточный
2output per worker – индивидуальная выработка, выработка на одного рабочего
3fertility — плодородие
4scarcity – недостаток, дефицит
5fixed capital – основной капитал, недвижимый капитал (недвижимость, оборудование и т. п.)
6underemployment – неполное использование рабочих ресурсов
After Russia, Canada is the second-largest country in the world. Its area is 10 million square kilometers. According to the United Nations’ index of human development1, Canada ranks number one for standard of life.
The economy of Canada once2 was based on agriculture and on developing the country’s natural resources. Today, however, services sector (such as finance, real estate, insurance, health care, education and tourism) and manufacturing industry are the main branches of the economy. More workers are employed in services sector than in any other section of the Canadian economy. The most valuable manufactured goods include automobiles and other transportation equipment, electrical and electronic products, processed foods, chemicals and metal products. Canada’s large forests support wood and paper industries.