Экзамен. 20 вопросов и ответов Doc3


1.What main parts is the automobile made up?

The automobile is made up of the engine, the chassis and the body.

The engine is the source of power.

The body includes the hood and fenders and accessories providing the passengers from wind, cold and rain.

The chassis consists of a power train, a frame with axles, wheels and springs. The chassis includes the brake and the steering systems as well.

2. What is the function of the engine?

We know the engine to be the source of power.

It includes electric, fuel, cooling and lubricating systems.

The engine makes the wheels rotate and the car move.

Most automobiles engines have six or eight cylinders.

3.What is the source of power?

The engine is the source of power.

The engine is attached to the frame in three or four points.

The two most common types of engines for cars are the petrol engine and diesel engine. Petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines. There are two main types of petrol engine — 4-stroke and 2-stroke. All cars use 4-stroke engines. But most motorbikes use 2-stroke engines.

4.What units does the power transmission include?

The power transmission includes the whole mechanism between the engine and the rear wheels. It comprises the clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, final drive, differential and axle shafts.

5.What are the basic troubles of transmission mechanism?

The indications of malfunctions in the transmission mechanism components are as follows:

1.incomplete disengagement of the clutch,

2. difficult engagement or self-meshing of gears,

3.run out and vibration of the cardan-drive shaft.

6. What systems does the engine include?

The engine is the source of power.

The engine includes fuel, cooling, electric and lubricating systems.

7. What is a 4-stroke cycle work of the engine?

Most automobile engines work on a 4-stroke cycle. A cycle is one complete sequence of 4 strokes of the piston in the cylinder. The operating cycle of the four-stroke petrol engine includes: inlet stroke, compression stroke, power stroke, exhaust stroke.

8.What main units does the chassis consist of?

The chassis consists of (the main units of the chassis are):

The power transmission, the running gear, the steering and the braking systems.

9. What is the function of the differential?

The differential enables the driving wheels to turn at different speeds which is necessary when turning the car.

10.What does the frame provide?

What types of frames do you know?

The frame provides support for the engine, body and power train members.

There are two types of frames, namely: conventional frames and integral (unibody) frames (frameless construction).

11.What device is the clutch?

What is the clutch used for?

The clutch is a device connecting the engine and the gearbox.

The clutch is situated between the flywheel of the engine and the gearbox.

The basic principle operation of the clutch is a frictional force acting between two discs.

The clutch is controlled by the clutch pedal.

12.What is the function of the gearbox?

What types of gearbox do you know?

The principle function of the gearbox is to vary the speed of the car movement to meet the road conditions.

There are many constructional arrangements of gearboxes, which can be classified as follows:

1.sliding-mesh type 2.constant-mesh type 3.epicyclic (planetary) type

13. What is the function of the brakes?

What types are brakes divided into?

Brakes are used to slow or to stop the car where it is necessary.

It is one of the most important mechanisms of the car as upon its proper performance the safety of the passenger depends.

Car brakes can be divided into two types, namely: drum brakes and disc brakes. The drum type may be either a band brake or a shoe brake.

Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic. And servo-assisted brakes are also used.

14.What brakes do you know according to their mode of operation?

What are the basic troubles of the braking system?

Brakes are used to slow o stop the car where it is necessary. It is one of the most important mechanisms of the car as upon its proper performance the safety of the passenger depends.

The basic troubles of the braking system are as follows:

1. poor braking action;

2.sticking (заедание)brake shoes which would not return to the initial position after a brake pedal is released;

3.non-uniform braking(неравномерное торможение) of the left and the right wheels on a common axle(общая ось);

4. leakage (утечка) of brake fluid(тормозной жидкости) and air leakage(утечка) in the hydraulic brake;

5. poor air tightness (герметичность) of the pneumatic brake control.

15. What mechanism is necessary to guide the car?

To guide the car, it is necessary to have some means of turning the front wheels so that the car can be pointed in the direction the driver wants to go.(steering system)

The steering wheel is connected (linked) by gears and levers to the front wheels.

16.What is the function of the steering wheel?

In order to drive the car, the driver should have some means of turning the front wheels. The steering wheel is located at the front of the driver. The steering system is one of the most important mechanism of the car.

It consists of a steering wheel, gears, tie rod, pitman arm and other units.

In order to turn the car in one direction or the other, the driver should turn the steering wheel. The steering wheel connected to the front wheels turns the car.

17.What requirements must modern automobile meet?

The automobile must meet up-to-date requirements.

It must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of handling and maintenance, pleasant appearance.

It must be comfortable and ecological.

18. What qualities are required of the automobile?

The modern automobile must have the following qualities: rapid acceleration, smooth-acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable braking and steering systems, ease of driving. The automobile engine must also have low fuel consumption and be ecological.

19.What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?

All specialists in automobile industry dealing with manufacturing automobiles (cars or trucks) must know that the production of the automobile comprises the following phases:


working out the technology of manufacturing processes,

laboratory tests,

road tests,

mass manufacturing (production).

20.Why are computers used in cars?

As we know before the automobile is put into mass production it should be properly designed and the car must meet up-to-date requirements.

In order to obtain all these qualities the specialists must know computer sciences because computers offer quick and optimal solutions of the problems and shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Besides they are used for better operation of mechanisms in cars.

Many modern automobiles are equipped with onboard computer systems for better automobile operation.