Topics 4 курс (к экзамену)


Our college

My Future profession

Great Britain

The Inventor of the Radio

Radio in Our Life

Television in Our Life

Computers in Our Life

The Internet

Mass Media



Scientific and Technological Progress




Ecological Problems

Our College

I’m lucky to be a student of the Higher State College of Communication. It is situated in Minsk in P. Brovka Street. Our college is one of the oldest educational establishments of our republic, built in1930.

Our college is known for its high standard of teaching, creative and stimulation atmosphere. All the teachers are well-trained, they are real professionals. They work closely with the students organizing group and individual tutorials. The full term of study in our college is seven years.

The students have to attend classes regularly and be very active. They often take tests, conduct experiments, prepare reports and take part in conferences.

We study many different subjects in the college. Some of them are very difficult, but so very interesting at the same time. To succeed we must be good at mathematics, physics, foreign languages. We have lectures and practical classes every day.

Social life in our college is rich in different events. All year round we have a varied program of evening activities including parties, discos, theatre visits and outings to different places of interest. We take part in various sport competitions, theatricals and concerts.

Our college has various facilities for studies. There are many labs in our college, well-equipped with TV sets, video-cassette recorders, tape-recorders and other necessary apparatus. We also have some computer class-rooms, a large conference hall, a gym, a great number of class-rooms.

The museum of the history of our college is our pride. It attracts visitors from all over the city. Our students themselves take care of the museum, they work there as guides.

In1993 one more building was built for our college. Now after four years of the specialized secondary education the most capable students have an opportunity to get higher education.

We have three hostels for those students, who have come from all over the republic. They are clean, cosy and comfortable. Our college doctor Tamara Vasiljevna takes care of our health.

There are rich libraries and reading-rooms in both buildings where we can borrow all the necessary books for our studies. The students can prepare for seminars and practical classes there.

A good education helps the graduates of our college to find a place in society, to guarantee high wages.

My Future profession

Choosing the kind of career is probably one of the most important decisions in our life. There are many interesting and useful professions and it’s really not an easy task to make the right choice.

I’m convinced that everybody is interested in establishing oneself in life. Work is an opportunity to plan and order our life. The career sounds interesting to me if I can get a prestigious profession, good working conditions and steady wages.

I originally became interested in the sphere of communication in my early teens. Telecommunications have brought us new lifestyle. Satellite television, electronic mail, fax, Internet, cellular telephones have changed the way we communicate, get and exchange information. Work, social life, politics, education-telecommunications are coming everywhere and provide new unique opportunities. New millennium will bring us to new horizons of social, political and economic interaction in the virtual world of modern telecommunicating.

Choosing the Higher State College of Communication I did a lot of thinking about the things I like to do and do well. I thought over my future employment and chances of promotion. One of the main principles of education in our college is to unite theory and practice. So we have lectures, seminars, laboratory works and practice. I want my skills to be in great demand. It’s a matter of responsibility with me to do a good job, to apply my knowledge.

I realize that we live in a competitive world and I try to face the situation realistically. My parents always encourage me. I hope that after graduating from the college I will be able to get a suitable job which will satisfy my priorities.


Career — занятие, профессия

To establish — устраивать(ся)

Steady — постоянный, надежный

Wages — зарплата

Originally — первоначально

Cellular — сотовый

Satellite — спутникMillennium — тысячелетие

Interaction — взаимодействие

Virtual — фактический, виртуальный

Skill — умение, мастерство

Apply — применять

Encourage — ободрять, помогать

Priority — приоритет

Great Britain

Great Britain (official name – the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), is situated on two large isles, the larger of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundreds small islands. The total area of Great Britain is 240,000 sq. kms, its population is 56,000,000 people.

In the northwest and west, the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, in the east — by the North Sea. The island of Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel. Northern Ireland, which is a part of Great Britain and which is situated on the island of Ireland, is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel.

The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (in the north and west of the island) and lowland (in the south and east). There are no very long rivers in Great Britain. The most important rivers are the Thames (the deepest) and the Severn (the longest). The rivers seldom freeze in winter. Due to moderating influence of the sea, Great Britain has an insular climate, rather humid and mild, without striking discrepancy between seasons.

Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Administratively Great Britain is divided into 55 counties. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.

England is the largest part of Great Britain (it occupies over 50 % of the territory and its population amounts to 83 % of the total population of Great Britain). Wales is a peninsula in the southwest of the island of Great Britain. It occupies about 9 % of its territory with the population of 4.8 % of the total population. The Welsh speak their own language. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain with the territory of 32 % of the total territory and with the population of 9 % of the total population of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the northeast part of the island of Ireland. Its territory amounts to 5.2 % of the total territory of Great Britain. The main cities of Northern Ireland are Belfast and Londonderry.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially, the head of the state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the ministers and Parliament. There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like «Magna Charta», «Habeas Corpus Act», «Bill of Rights», the Parliamentary Act that decided the position of the House of Lords, the Judicature Act, etc. The British legislation does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.

Parliament in Great Britain exists since 1265 and is the eldest Parliament in the world. It consists of two Houses — the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords consists of 1000 peers who are not elected by the people. The House of Commons is a nation-wide representative body, which is elected by the people at a general election not less frequently than once in 5 years. After the general election, the Queen appoints the head of the government — the Prime Minister. As a rule, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government.

There are two main political parties in Great Britain: the Conservative party and the Labour party. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party. The Labour party was founded in 1900. Since 1906 it has borne the name of the Labour Part. For the first time the Labour Party won the election in 1945.

Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. The main fields of British industry are machine building, shipbuilding, metallurgy, electronics, etc.

The Inventor of the Radio

Contemporary life is impossible without information network which keeps people informed on the topical events of the day. Radio, one of the most accessible mass media, was invented by Alexander Stepanovich Popov on May 7 /April 25 / 1895. So, in 1995 the whole world celebrated the 100 — year anniversary of this great invention.

A. Popov /l859-1906/ was the greatest Russian scientist and inventor. He was born in the family of a priest. First he studied at Perm Clergy Seminary. In 1882 he graduated from Petersburg University.

Alexander Popov possessed extensive knowledge of electrical theory and wide experience in this field. He was a unique man. Being a scientist he always carried on some practical work. He did much for the Russian Navy having introduced electricity in it.

Popov was one of the first to turn attention to the work of Hertz, a famous German scientist-physicist who proved experimentally the existence of electromagnetic waves. Popov used this discovery to construct a device, which was able to receive electromagnetic waves at a long distance. He called his device a radio-receiver.

The work of the receiver was based on the arc discharge principle. The receiver recorded waves generated by lightning discharges. The successful functioning of the device in practice proved its ability to catch electromagnetic oscillations in the atmosphere.

On May 7 /April 251 1895 A. Popov demonstrated his device at the Russian Physico-Chemical Society. It was a fundamentally new set transmitting signals at a distance by means of rapid electrical oscillations.

Popov constantly perfected his radio –receiver. The scientist found out experimentally that a free wire connected to his device increased the range of the latter. Thus he invented the first antenna in the world.

In summer 1895 he attached to the receiver an apparatus previously used for recording telegrams over the wire telegraph. In 1896 this perfected device was used for warning about approaching thunderstorm at the electric power station in Nizhny Novgorod.

Popov’s wireless communication was used in the Naval Ministry. It became the basis of radiolocation for detecting battleships.

The year 1898 witnessed a new important invention made by Popov and his assistants Ribkin and Troitsky — the reception of audible signals by the receiver.

The great Russian inventor did not make any secret of his discovery, describing it in press, making reports about it. His invention excited interest all over the world. Popov was offered immense profits from foreign commercial organizations. But being a Russian patriot he turned down the riches offered to him. He preferred to serve his motherland.

The leading Russian scientists realized the significance of his invention but the fate of the country was not in their hands. The tsarist government did nothing for home production of his device and training specialists for the newly born brunch.

Only during and after the Great October revolution the new means of communication invented by Alexander Popov was widely used by the young Soviet government.


To invent – изобретать

Extensive – обширный, крупный

Navy – военно — морской флот, адмиралтейство

Introduce – вводить, внедрять

Device – устройство

Arc – электрическая дуга

Discharge – эл. разряд

Record – записывать, регистрировать

Lightning – молния

Oscillation — колебания

To transmit – передавать, пересылать

To perfect – усовершенствовать, улучшать

To attach – присоединить, прикрепить

Thunderstorm – гроза

Wireless communication – беспроводная связь

Battleship — линейный корабль, линкор

To witness – засвидетельствовать

Reception – получение, прием

Audible — звуковой, слышимый

Excite – возбудить

Immense – огромный

Profit – доход, прибыл

Unique – единственный в своем роде, уникальный, бесподобный

Radio in Our Life

Nowadays it is impossible to imagine our life without radio, television, computer, telephone. We use telecommunication services practically every minute. And often we do not think about huge and powerful telecommunication industry that embraces the whole globe with its networks.

Communicating by radio is a method of sending or receiving sounds and data through the air by means of electrical waves. Radio is widespread for its portability. It can be easily carried around.

We use the airwaves for many purposes broadcasting most of our local and national radio and TV stations, in our mobile radio and telephone services, and to communicate on a global scale through distant satellites, which act as a kind of reflector in the sky, redirecting the information we send up to them.

The first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts began in the U.S. in 1920. Expansion of both audience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally the first of news media to report a local story or a news service bulletin, weather forecasting or traffic information.

Another important use of this means of communicating is in shipping. A ship that is in difficulty can call the nearest coast station, giving details of its situation and, if necessary, ask for help. We call this ‘ship-to-shore’ radio. Radio can ensure greater safety in navigation (for example, to warn of bad weather or of hazards in the shipping lanes) and it enables large amounts of information to be sent over land or water without the support of several hundred kilometres of wires and cables. Radio networks can, therefore, be cheaper to install but often have fewer circuits than cable links. Radar systems also enable air-traffic controllers to follow and guide the flight paths of planes from take-off to landing.

Radio-paging systems enable us to be contacted even though we do not have a telephone within easy reach. It is a way of letting us know that something important has just happened and that we must act quickly. It’s cheaper to have a pager than a cellular telephone. The system works through a pager or ‘bleeper’, a small receiver about the size of a packet of cigarettes, which you can keep in your ocket. When people want to contact you, they simply pick up the nearest telephone, dial your personal paging number free of charge, and wherever you are in the coverage area, your pager will bleep (You must, however, be above, not below, ground level, for the signal will not get through if you are underground.) The bleeping informs you that someone is calling you. You can identify up to four callers on some types of equipment. The most modem type of radio-pager displays the number of the telephone the caller is ringing from. The main advantage of radio-paging is that you can be contacted wherever you are, even though you may be a long way from a telephone set. At present you can send messages to a pager through Internet.

Many companies which have personnel on business trips have found that radio-paging improves their competitive position and allows them to be more responsive to a lot of their customers’ needs. It also increases company efficiency by cutting out many unnecessary and expensive journeys that are sometimes made by salesmen. This saves time and fuel costs. Doctors can be contacted immediately and return to their surgery or hospital, thus possibly saving the life of a very sick patient.


Schedule — расписание, перечень

Broadcast – радиовещание, радиопередача

Expansion — распространение

Audience – аудитория, слушатели

Bulletin – связь, бюллетень

Forecasting — прогноз

Traffic- движение, транспорт

Ensure – обеспечивать, гарантировать

Hazard – риск

Lane — проход

Circuit – цикл, кругооборот, эл. цепь

Link – звено, соединение

Personnel — персонал

Competitive — конкурентоспособный

Fuel – топливо, горючее

Surgery — хирургия

Television in Our Life

The name ‘Television’ comes from Greek word meaning ‘far’ and Latin word meaning “to see” so it means “to see far”.

Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but were interrupted by World War II. By 1992 the U.S. had 1,505 television stations, and cable television systems in the U.S. served over 56 million households. Television signals are also now transmitted from satellites direct to household satellite dishes.

Television is the main source of news for many households around the world. TV does what none of the other media can: it brings the sight and sounds of some important news events by means of filmed, taped or live reports.

TV is one of the best inventions the man has ever made. We are beginning to forget what the world was without TV. Everybody knows what a great force TV is in the world today. Thanks to TV we get a great amount of information. It gives wonderful possibilities for education. It enriches our intellect We also become better informed by watching documentaries, science programmes, discussions and by learning the most important issues of the day.

TV gives an opportunity to see the best actors, sport matches, to meet famous people. TV brings the world to our room. We see people in our country and in other lands and learn about their customs, occu-pations, traditions, problems. We become cultured people by learning more of the arts.

Television helps us to relax after a hard day’s work, so we can then cope better with the next day’s work. Besides, there is a considerable amount of TV programmes: news, different talk-shows, TV games, concerts and va¬riety shows, sport programmes, feature films, serials and so on and so forth. They are of great enter-tainment value and provide useful topics for conversation. A lot of these programmes are very popular. For example, News deals with political and social problems of modern society. Their aim is to give analysis of the problems and show different view points. They are concerned with the country’s national events, the most topical political problems of the day. Musical Review presents songs, pop groups, folk songs. It is very popular with TV viewers.

Thus, we can say that TV is a great force which attracts millions of people to the screens.

But tastes differ. Some people are against TV. They say that TV is doing a lot of harm. It occupies a lot of free time. People used to have hobbies, to meet with friends, to go to the cinema or theatre, to read books, to listen to music. Nowadays many people sit watching TV hour by hour. They don’t read books, they don’t do sports, they begin to forget the art of conversation. Watching TV for a long time may lead to poor health and ruin eye-sight.

But nobody makes you watch TV for hours. You can simply switch off your TV-set . Nobody can deny the fact, that TV is a great force in the world today.


to broadcast – передавать по радио

household -хозяйство

satellite dish – спутниковая антенна

media – средство информации

issue – выпуск, издание

to cope – справляться, бороться

feature film – художественный фильм

entertainment — развлечение

topical — злободневный

screen — экран

deny — отрицать

Computers in Our Life

Computer is a very clever machine. This new servant of man is only about twenty-five years old, but it has already changed the lives of many people. Wherever the citizen turns, he finds a computer working. It helps him make long-distance and local telephone calls.

Computers are also used when one reserves space on аn airplane. Walk into any airline office. Before selling you a ticket, the reservation clerk uses machine that looks like a typewriter to record information about where you want to go and the flight number of the plane that will take you to your destination. This information is sent instantly to a central computer that may be many kilometres away from the airline office. Within seconds, the computer informs the clerk whether or not there is space for you on that plane.

Such reservation systems are now in increasing use. They are also employed by hotels, by companies that rent cars, and by offices that sell tickets to theatres and sport events. The computer not only determines what seats are available at what prices, but it also prints the tickets at the same time.

When you buy an automobile, a computer enables you to obtain a car with your own choice of colors and special features in just a few weeks’ time.

In medical laboratories, computers have reduced the errors in testing, and they have saved doctors countless hours of work. Before long, medical histories of all Americans will be kept in computer “banks». If a person becomes ill far from his home, local doctors will be able to get his medical record immediately. In science, the computer has performed in minutes experiments which would have required thousands of hours of work by human hands and minds.

The United States is not the only country affected by the computer revolution. Computers are popular all over the world.

Most experts agree that computers are essential to solving the problems of increasing population, city living, and Public welfare. Without computers the job of solving these problems would require millions of workers to do tons of paperwork.

Without special training it is impossible to understand exactly how a computer does its work. Nevertheless, many people without scientific training use computers in their daily lives. In some American schools, for example, young children are being taught by computers for part of the school day.’ The use of computers in schools has worried some Americans. There are those who fear it will remove the human clement from teacher-student relationship. Some teachers fear that computers will take their jobs. On the other hand, there are educators who consider computers a valuable means of freeing teachers from the more boring and tiring tasks, thus enabling them to spend more time with individual students.

In education, as in business and industry, science and medicine, computers play an important part in almost every type of operation. The future will bring major advances in computer technology and applications, which will aid man in his efforts to improve his world.


to record – записывать, регистрировать

to determin – назначать, определять

process – обрабатывать

enable – давать возможность, право что-либо сделать

to reduce – уменьшать, понижать, ослаблять

error – ошибка, заблуждение

advancement — продвижение

essential – существенный, неотъемлемый

educator — педагог

application – применение, употребление, просьба, обращение

to aid — помогать

The Internet

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them.

This technology is called packet switching. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-switching network already survived at war. It was the Iraqi computer network, which was not knocked out during the Gulf War,

Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50 %) are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each, month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading Usenet News, using the World-Wide Web, Telnet, FTP and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunication systems of these coun¬tries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long dis-tances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a user pays his/her service pro¬vider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled — but inexpensive — Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different net¬works and computers. The data are constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of comput¬ers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet, In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programs available, nearly all the in-formation being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i.e. «in the clear». But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However there are still both commercial and technical problems, which will take time to be resolved.


to embrace — охватывать

to design -замышлять, конструировать

to survive -выжить, уцелеть

path -путь

to stay in touch -оставаться на связи

route -путь, маршрут, курс

packet switching -пакет коммутации

to knock out -уничтожить, вывести из строя

host computer -сервер

fairly accurately -довольно точно

access -доступ

to communicate with -сообщаться, связаться с

actually -фактически, действительно

the cost of running -стоимость обслуживания

wires and wireless stations — проводные и беспроводные станции

saving money -экономия денег

will drastically increase -значительно возрастет

to transmit –передавать

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