Сборник текстов по английскому языку для дополнительного чтения №1.
Для студентов 2 -4 курса «Л\д»
What is a migraine headache?
High Blood Pressure — Effective Treatments.
At the doctor’s.
At the dentist’s.
What the doctor wrote.
Medical Care in Great Britain and the United State.
Техт 1. What is a migraine headache?
A migraine headache is a form of vascular headache. Migraine headache is caused by a combination of vasodilatation (enlargement of blood vessels) and the release of chemicals from nerve fibers that coil around the blood vessels. During a migraine attack, the temporal artery enlarges. (The temporal artery is an artery that lies on the outside of the skull just under the skin of the temple.) Enlargement of the temporal artery stretches the nerves that coil around the artery and cause the nerves to release chemicals. The chemicals cause inflammation, pain, and further enlargement of the artery. The increasing enlargement of the artery magnifies the pain.
Migraine attacks commonly activate the sympathetic nervous system in the body. The sympathetic nervous system is often thought of as the part of the nervous system that controls primitive responses to stress and pain, the so-called «fight or flight» response. The increased sympathetic nervous activity in the intestine causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Sympathetic activity also delays emptying of the stomach into the small intestine and thereby prevents oral medications from entering the intestine and being absorbed. The impaired absorption of oral medications is a common reason for the ineffectiveness of medications taken to treat migraine headaches. The increased sympathetic activity also decreases the circulation of blood, and this leads to pallor of the skin as well as cold hands and feet. The increased sympathetic activity also contributes to the sensitivity to light and sound sensitivity as well as blurred vision.
Migraine afflicts 28 million Americans, with females suffering more frequently (17%) than males (6%). Missed work and lost productivity from migraine create a significant public burden. Nevertheless, migraine still remains largely undertreated and underdiagnosed. Less than half the sufferers are diagnosed by their doctors.
Техт 2. Pancreatic cancer
What are the symptoms of pancreatic cancer?
Pancreatic cancer has been called a «silent» disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause symptoms. If the tumor blocks the common bile duct and bile cannot pass into the digestive system, the skin and whites of the eyes may become yellow, and the urine may become darker. This condition is called jaundice. As the cancer grows and spreads, pain often develops in the upper abdomen and sometimes spreads to the back. The pain may become worse after the person eats or lies down. Cancer of the pancreas can also cause nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and weakness.
How is cancer of the pancreas diagnosed?
The doctor performs a complete physical exam and asks about the patient’s personal and family medical history. In addition to checking general signs of health (temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and so on), the doctor usually orders blood, urine, and stool tests. The doctor may also ask for a «barium swallow,» or «upper GI series.» For this test, the patient drinks a barium solution before X-rays of the upper digestive system are taken. The barium helps visualize the pancreas on the X-rays.
Are there additional tests that may be used to diagnose pancreatic cancer?
Here are other tests that may be performed:
Angiogram: special X-ray of blood vessels.
CT scans: X-rays that give detailed pictures of a cross section of the pancreas.
Transabdominal ultrasound: high-frequency sound waves that form a picture of the pancreas.
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram): a special X-ray of the common bile duct.
Endoscopic ultrasound: a relatively new procedure in which an endoscope containing an ultrasound probe scans the pancreas for cancers.
How is cancer of the pancreas treated?
Cancer of the pancreas is curable only when it is found in its earliest stages, before it has spread. Otherwise, it is very difficult to cure. However, it can be treated, symptoms can be relieved, and the quality of the patient’s life can be improved.
Treatment for pancreatic cancer depends on a number of factors. Among these are the type, size, and extent of the tumor as well as the patient’s age and general health. Treatment can consist of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or possibly biological therapy. We’ll take a look at each option and the possible side effects on the following slides.
Text 3. High Blood Pressure — Effective Treatments
I am 70 years old with basic high blood pressure/hypertension for the last five years. When I smoked two to three packs a day and had a few drinks every day, I did not have high blood pressure! When my doctor discovered my high blood pressure, a prosthetic aortic valve was inserted. That was five years ago. I have not even touched a cigarette since, but I do have two large drinks every evening. I walk four kilometers every day and remain physically and mentally active. I have had to change medicines almost every three to six months. I also take a water pill every other day to prevent my feet from swelling.
I am suffering from essential hypertension since 37 years I have taken various treatments & combinations of drugs to control it. I have to check regularly observe discipline in food habits exercise regularly. I have no cholesterol or diabetes. Presently I take Valent Aten 100 in morning & Catapres with Aspirin 75 in the night. I develop resistance to drugs & have to have them changed from time to time. I have to measure pressure regularly. It is the spot check which catches pressure & I have to visit the doctor to have the drugs changed.
The best treatment that has been effective for my high blood pressure is simply walking every other day. I began to feel great and more alert!
I’m 49 and my Hypertension is all stress related, so under Doctor supervision I’ve been taking Naturopathic medication (after consultations with Naturopath) with regular exercise, I’ve found most days it stays within normal limits. Please Note: I had terrible reaction to Micardis hence the Naturopath.
I had high blood pressure, and by taking garlic regularly and reducing my weight by 15 pounds, my blood pressure has dropped.
Text 4. Asthma Myths.
These are some of the many faces of asthma. Most researchers believe that the different patterns of asthma are all related to one condition. Other researchers feel that separate lung conditions exist. There is currently no cure for asthma, and no single exact cause has been identified. Therefore, understanding the changes that occur in asthma, how it makes you feel, and how it can behave over time is vital. This knowledge empowers you to take an active role in your own health care.
Test your «asthma IQ» by taking the following true or false quiz:
False: Asthma is not a psychological condition. However, emotional triggers can cause flare-ups.
You cannot outgrow asthma. In about 50% of children with asthma, the condition may become inactive in the teenage years. The symptoms, however, may recur at anytime in adulthood.
There is no cure for asthma, but the disease can be controlled in most patients with good medical care. The condition should be taken seriously since uncontrolled asthma may result in emergency hospitalization and possible death.
True: You have a 6% chance of having asthma if neither parent has the condition; a 30% chance if one parent has it; and a 70% chance if both parents have it.
A new environment may temporarily improve asthma symptoms, but it will not cure asthma. After a few years in the new location, many persons become sensitized to the new environment, and the asthma symptoms return with the same or even greater intensity than before.
Asthma is not contagious.
Swimming is an optimal exercise for those with asthma. On the other hand, exercising in dry, cold air may be a trigger for asthma in some people.
Asthma medications are not addictive.
Text 5. Dialogues.
“Hello. How are you?”
“I’m not doing very well. I’ve got a cold.”
“Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. You must go to the doctor at once.”
“Well, I’m sure I’ll recover in no time.”
“Take care of yourself. I hope you feel better soon.”
“Thank you. Bye.”
Calling First Aid.
“First Aid here. What happened?”
“A man here is having a serious heart trouble.”
“Name and age?”
“Skidoo, 58 years old.”
“Number 24, May Street, Flat 16.”
“A car will arrive in ten minutes.”
I don’t feel well.
“What’s the matter with you, sonny, where does it hurt?”
“I don’t feel well.”
“Where is the pain?”
“I’ve got a very bad headache and my nose is running.”
“You have caught a cold. Take this pill. Have a cup of hot tea with honey and go to bed.”
At the Doctor’s.
“Take off your jacket and shirt and let me examine you.”
“All right, Doctor.”
“You don’t cough, I suppose, or feel any pain anywhere, do you?”
“No, doctor, not at all, I fell quite well.”
“Fine, now le me listen to your heart…With a heart like that you will live to be two hundred. Now, what about your stomach? Lie down and I’ll see if anything is wrong there…This was where you had the pains when you were ill, wasn’t it? Any pain now?”
“Yes, that was the place, doctor, but it doesn’t hurt at all now.”
“Well, a few weeks at a sanatorium in Kislovodsk will do you a world of good, I think. Get dressed now while I write out your papers.”
“Thank you, Doctor.”
Text 6. At the doctor’s.
Doctor: Would you like to come in?
Patient: Thank you.
Doctor: That cough sounds really very bad. How long have you had it?
Patient: Two days now.
Doctor: I think I should listen to your chest and lungs. Take off your shirt. Breathe in deeply; and again, please; and once more, please. Sit down. You can put on your shirt. I’m going to take your blood pressure. Well, your blood pressure is 110 to 70. It’s normal. I think you’ve got a bad cold.
Patient: what should I do?
Doctor: I’ll describe you some medicine. It’s nothing serious but you’d better stay in bed for some days. Take the medicine regularly, three times a day. Drink warm milk with honey and you will recover soon.
Patient: Thank you very much, doctor. Good-bye.
Doctor: Who is the next?
Patient: Good day, doctor.
Doctor: Come in, please. Sit down. What is your complaint?
Patient: I keep feeling dizzy and I’ve got a headache. Maybe I’ve got a fever?
Doctor: I should take your temperature. Oh, your temperature is running. 38 degrees. Show me your throat. You have a sore throat.
Patient: Yes, it’s difficult for me to swallow and to breathe.
Doctor: I should feel your pulse. It’s serious. I think you have quinsy.
Patient: What should I do?
Doctor: I’ll prescribe some medicine for you. Ask somebody to go and buy the medicine at the chemist’s. And you must immediately go home and go to bed. I’ll come to see you in a couple of days.
Patient: Thank you, doctor. Good-bye.
Text 7. At the dentist’s.
Once I had a toothache for several days, but I couldn’t pluck up courage to go to the dentist. As a matter of fact I went twice, but just as I got on his doorstep and was going to ring the bell the toothache seemed to have gone away, so I went home again. But at last I had to go back, and this time I rang the bell and I was shown into the waiting- room.
There were a number of magazines there, and I had just got in the middle of an exciting story when the maid came in to say Mr. Puller was ready to see me – I’ll have to wait for the next toothache to fish the story.
Well, I went into the surgery (the room where a doctor or dentist gives advice or treatment) and he told me to sit in a chair that he could move up and down, backwards and forwards, and then he had a look at the inside of my mouth. He put a little mirror on a long handle inside my mouth and pocked about for a while, then he looked serious and said, “Yes, I’m afraid we can’t save that one, it will have to come out.”
I asked him to give me an injection. He filled a syringe with a liquid called cocaine. I felt a little prick on the gum and then injected the cocaine. He did this in two or three places and waited for a minute or so.
My mouth felt rather dead. Then he took a pair of forceps, gripped the tooth, gave a twist, then a pull, and the tooth was out. I could see it and hear it but I couldn’t feel it. Then he said, “It’s all over. Spit in there and then wash your mouth out with this disinfectant.”
Text 8. What the doctor wrote.
I remember going to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for some illness of which I had a touch. I got down the book and read all I came to read and then, in an unthinking moment, I turned the pages and began to study illnesses generally. I forget which the first I read about was but before I had looked down the list of symptoms, I was sure I had it.
Then I turned over the pages again. I came to typhoid fever-read the symptoms-discovered that I had typhoid fever-wondered what else I had and so started to read alphabetically. I read through the twenty-six letters and found out that I had all the illnesses.
Then I wondered how long I had to live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first feel my pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start off. I took out my watch and timed it. I made it a hundred and forty-seven to the minute. I tried to feel my heart. But I could not feel or hear anything…I went to my medical man. He is an old friend of mine, and feels my pulse, and talks about the weather, all for nothing, when I think I am ill.
The doctor looked at me and said, “Well, what’s the matter with you?”
I said, “I shall not take your time, dear boy, with telling you what the matter with me is. Life is short and you might die before I have finished.
And I told him everything.
Then he opened me and looked down me. After that he sat down and wrote a prescription, and gave it to me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.
I did not open it. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it back. He said he didn’t keep it.
I said, “Are you a chemist?”
He said, “I am a chemist, not a co-operative store and family hotel combined”.
I read the prescription.
“I pound beefsteak, with
I bottle of beer ever six hours.
I ten-mile walk every morning.
I bed at 11 every night.
And don’t fill up your head with things you don’t understand.”
(After Jerome K. Jerome)
Text 9. AIDS.
AIDS is an insidious and up to the present moment incurable but less contagious disease than measles or hepatitis B. AIDS is thought to be caused primarily by a virus that invades white blood cells (lymphocytes) and certain other body cells, including the brain.
In 1983 and 1984, French and U.S. researchers independently identified the virus believed to cause AIDS as an unusual type of slow-acting retrovirus now called «human immunodeficiency virus» or HIV. Like other viruses, HIV is basically a tiny package of genes. But being a retrovirus, it has the rare capacity to copy and insert its genes right into a human DNA. Once inside a human host cell, the retrovirus using its own capacities begins to copy its genetic code into a DNA molecule which is then incorporated into the host’s DNA. The virus becomes an integral part of the person’s body. But the viral DNA may sit hidden and inactive within human cells for years, until some trigger stimulates it to replicate. Thus HIV may not produce illness until its genes are «turned on » five, ten, fifteen or perhaps more years after the initial infection.
During the latent period, HIV carriers who harbor the virus without any sign of illness can unknowingly infect others. On average, the dormant virus seems to be triggered into action three to six years after first invading human cells. When switched on, viral replication may speed along, producing new viruses that destroy fresh lymphocytes. As viral replication spreads, the lymphocyte destruction virtually sabotages the entire immune system. In essence, HIV viruses do not kill people, they merely render the immune system defenseless against other infections, e.g. yeast invasions, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, massive herpes infections, special forms of pneumonia that kill in half of all AIDS patients.
That is AIDS. There are several types of AIDS. No one has been cured up to the present moment.
Text 10. Medical Care in Great Britain and the United State.
In Britain, there is a National Health Service (the NHS), which is paid for by taxes and national insurance, and in general people do not have to pay for medical treatment. Every person is registered with a doctor in their local area, known as a general practitioner or GP. This means that their name is on the GP’s list, and they may make an appointment to see the doctor or may call the doctor out to visit them if they are sick. People do sometimes have to pay part of the cost of drugs that the doctor prescribes. GPs are trained in general medicine but are not specialist in my particular subject. If a patient needs to see a specialist doctor, they must first go to their GP and then GP will make an appointment for the patient to see a specialist at a hospital or clinic.
Although everyone in Britain can have free treatment under the NHS, it is also possible to have treatment done privately, for which one has to pay. Some people have private health insurance to help them pay for private treatment. Under the NHS, people who need to go to the hospital may have to wait a long time on a waiting list for their treatment.
Anyone who is very sick can call an ambulance and get taken to the hospital for free urgent medical treatment. Ambulances are a free service in Britain.
American hospitals are in general well-equipped and efficient, and doctors earn incomes far above the general average. For anyone who is sick, cost of the treatment is very high. There is a strong prejudice against “socialized medicine”, and there are only two federal health programs. Medicare provides nearly free treatment for the elderly people do not recover the full cost or some types of expensive treatment. Even so, the cost of Medicare to federal funds rose to seventy billion dollars in 1985 or more than two thousand dollars for each of the thirty million participants. Medicaid, for the poor, varies from one state to another because the states are heavily involved in it and some contribute more generously than others. Working people and their families are normally insured through private plans against possible loss of earnings if they are sick. The plans are often operated by deductions from one’s salary. They too enormously expensive and the cost are rising. No single insurance system is absolutely comprehensive; some people have more than one policy and yet remain liable to bear some costs themselves. Among ordinary people anxiety about the possibility of illness is accentuated by fears about its cost. These fears are reflected in some resentment against the medical profession, and this resentment is not alleviated by doctors’ reluctance to visit patients in their homes. When people are sick, they usually go first to an internist. Unlike in Britain, however, people sometimes go straight to a specialist, without seeing their general practitioner first. Children are usually taken to a pediatrician. As in Britain, if a patient needs to see a specialist, their general doctor will usually give them the name of one. Doctors do not go to people’s homes when they are ill. People always make appointments to see the doctor in the doctor’s office. In emergencies, people call an ambulance. Hospitals must treat all emergency patients, even if the patient does not have medical insurance. The government would then help pay for some of the cost of the medical care.