Районная научно-практическая конференция
«Интеллект юных – Барнаулу и родному краю»
«Продукты быстрого приготовления: есть или не есть?»
(научно-исследовательская работа на английском языке)
ученица 7 «А» класса
учитель английского языка
МБОУ «СОШ №59»
Барнаул 2013 г.
The importance of the question of fast food……………………………….3
Fast food and health…………………………………………………………3
Why do we eat fast food?…………………………………………………………………7
The results of research work………………………………………………11
The list of used literature……………………………………………………15
1. The importance of the question of fast food
Fast food has always been popular. Children have always liked Big Mac and drinks. You can find fast food restaurants in all countries of the world, practically in all big cities. People come in and quickly have their lunches and dinners. They say they like it because it doesn’t take them long, the food is rather tasty and they don’t pay much money for their meals. But is this food really healthy? Nowadays scientists take a lot about eating problems. Some of them say that many people have become fat because they are fond of junk food — hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chips, and so on. And these are the things we usually buy and eat in fast food restaurants. There is not enough fruit and vegetables on the menu and there is too much sugar in sweet pies and cakes. This food is low in vitamins. Eating such food is risky and can be really dangerous.
The question about fast food is very important today. A lot of children and grown- ups eat fast food with great pleasure every day.
The object of my work is: fast food.
The subject of my work is: people’s attitude to fast food.
The aim of my work is: to study people’s attitude to fast food and understand to eat fast food or not.
The tasks are:
To learn the history of fast food;
To learn benefit and harm of the ingredients of fast food;
To analyze opinion of children and grown-ups about fast food.
The hypothesis of my work is: a lot of people don’t know or don’t think about harm of fast food, so they eat much fast food.
Methods are: studying literature, sociological questioning, modeling.
3. Fast food and health
Fast food is convenient and inexpensive. Hamburgers, hot dogs, french fries, fried chicken, fried fish, pizza, gyros and doughnuts are fast foods eaten by millions. Although these often fried and processed foods contain nutrients, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, they are also loaded with sodium, cholesterol, unhealthy fats, sugar and calories. Consuming fast foods, especially if you eat them often, may increase your risk of chronic disease.
There was never a time in the world, when people would only eat junk food. Meanwhile, breakfast and lunch at a fast food restaurant and the pizza home delivery as dinner — the trend of today. In combination with physical inactivity uniform absorption and calories — a straight road to obesity and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Of these diseases in a natural way «flow» modern «epidemic» of diabetes and cardiovascular events.
Determines the range name. Fast food (English fast food — fast food) — food prepared for a quick meal on the go or even on the move. This is a dish that is not ready to order, both in the restaurant and warm up of the semis. Thus, the range of fast food is very limited: hot dogs, hamburgers, buns, fries, saucesbags.
Fast, fast, faster. Quick food industry has created a kind of sports even on speed eating fast food. However, participants in this sporting event becoming who eat this way. Fast food eaten quickly, not really chewing, resulting in stomach fall unground and saliva soaked pieces of food. As a consequence, an increased likelihood of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, ulcers, etc.) increases significantly. Food is absorbed on the go or for a limited amount of time is dangerous to health.
World Map. International Network TGI conducts consumer research in more than 50 countries. Age of respondents — 18 years and above. The study showed in 2005, the largest number of consumers of fast food are from the USA and Australia. In these countries, about nine out of ten people choose to «fast food.» The most ardent fans of such power in the two countries are males aged 18 to 24 years. Third place goes to Israel, is 85% of the population consume fast food. In fourth place — Canada (83%).With good separation from other European countries are becoming the UK. Here, the number of consumers of fast food a little less than in North America — 82%.According to research by TGI Global, the most noticeable changes in the quick service segment in recent years have taken place in China. Changing lifestyles, the shift toward Western culture led to a steady increase in the consumption of fast food. The American «fast food» seriously pressed ethnic cuisine, including Chinese fast food. Its main customer is, as in the case of Australia and the U.S., youth. Over the past year 79% of the population aged 18 to 24 years visited the Western fast food type. Compared with the data of five years ago, it increased by 15%. The number of young people who attended the Chinese fast food establishments for the same period is 52%. Over the past five years, it increased by only 8%. In other words, the increase in attendance of Chinese fast food is almost two times lower than the U.S.In the European continent, the popularity of fast food is much lower. France — 57%. Moreover, in contrast to the situation in China, American fast-food French are not welcome. In French in «McDonald’s» fed exclusively by tourists and expatriates. The root of the population prefers patriotic widely sold baguettes with ham, cheese and sauces. On the same level with France keeps Bulgaria, where devotees fast food 54%, Mexico (53%) and Germany (51%). In Spain, the consumers of fast food less than half — 43%. Even lower rates in Hungary — 35%. The popularity of fast food in many European countries due to busy rhythm of life, when do not have enough time to polnotsennyyobed, and, importantly, the pricing for the restaurant market. For example, in Belgium, where the business lunch costs about 10-12 euros, most prefer to eat a sandwich for 3 euros.
Aftermath. USA, home of fast food, is perhaps the fattest country — four obese children there suffer 43 million American adults, or one in seven residents. First degree of obesity, where the body weight exceeds the physiological norm by 30% to reach 170 million of the 300 million people in the United States. Obesity — a major cause of death in the U.S. Russia, the country is developing fast food in recent years has become one of the ten most obese countries. According to the statistics given in the newspaper «RBC Daily», 26% of Russians are obese and another 25% — are overweight.
To eat or not to eat fast food — an individual decision. On the correctness of the decision depends on the duration of your life. Make the right choice. Eat healthy and live long!
Last place of honor. Russian consumption of fast food is the last place in the ranking of 16 countries. We regularly visit the quick service, only a third of the population (33%). According to most restaurateurs, the relatively low level of consumption of «fast food» is primarily due to the fact that the Russian market of fast food is quite young, and Russia has yet to come. Formed a new relationship with food: more and more people are willing to eat out. Most clearly this trend is evident in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other big cities. However, despite the strong growth in the segment of fast food, restaurateurs agree that «catch up and overtake» the U.S. Russian fast food is not given.
Completely on eating out Russian consumers simply can not afford. In the U.S., the average income per person is several times higher than ours. A burger and they have, and we have cost about $ 1. Only 10% of Russians can afford to go to restaurants regularly. Taking into account the poverty of Russian consumers, investors will not invest in the creation of fast-food companies in the global scale, as it does in the U.S..
Fast food and the health of the nation. Fast food — a convenient form of nourishment for those whose working day is written down to the minute. For speed eating people are willing to sacrifice their health. As recognized by many respondents if they had the chance, they would deal with the development of their own food, but the pace of business life leads them to a different choice. In the U.S., about one-third of consumers say they «do not have time to cook a meal.» The same argument put forward South Africans. However, not all fans of fast food explain their choice too busy at work. Despite increasing every year the number of supporters of a healthy way of living is a lot of people who at the sight of a hamburger (hot dogs, pizza, etc.) simply lose the will. And then all sensible arguments in favor of proper nutrition can be extremely persuasive, but they do not follow the strength or desire. In Mexico, about three-quarters of consumers (73%) say that they like the «foods that are harmful or undesirable for them.» According to the study, most TGI Global fast food lovers consider such food harmful to health. In Hungary, nearly half (46%) of residents agree that «fast food» — is a high-calorie food with low nutritional value. In Mexico, a similar view is held by 62% of the population.
Active promotion of healthy lifestyles though not everywhere, but it brings some results. As shown by research, despite the popularity of fast food in most countries, more and more people realize the urgency of the matter of proper nutrition. Almost one-third of Canada’s population (34%) reported that the eating of fast food to overcome with a sense of guilt, two-thirds (66%) agree with the statement «I really should start eating their own advantage.» Most progress is noticeable in the UK: here the number of those who, sitting down at the table, the first step begins calculating the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, in the past five years has increased by 23%. In addition, during the same period was 18% more than those who agree that «fast food» is too rich in calories and has a low nutritional value.
In Russia, the attitude to fast food, according to the study «COMCON» (Russian Index of target groups), however, is improving. Attendance of fast food in the last five years has grown by 8.4%. The number of those who think fast food harmful, declined compared to 2003 by 9.6%.
High Blood Pressure. Fast foods contain high amounts of sodium, to reduce spoilage and accentuate flavor. High sodium in your diet can increase your blood pressure. High blood pressure makes your heart work harder to pump blood because your arteries are narrowed and resist blood flow. The narrower your arteries are, the higher your blood pressure, and you may not have any noticeable symptoms. High blood pressure can damage your blood vessels and organs and lead to hardening of the arteries, heart failure, heart attack, vision loss and stroke
Increased Cholesterol and Unhealthy Fats. Fast foods contain high amounts of cholesterol, saturated fat and trans fat, substances that may increase your risk for cardiovascular disease. Animal products, such as meat and dairy, contain cholesterol and saturated fat. Fast food restaurants and processed food manufacturers use trans fat, an industrial processed hydrogenated vegetable oil, to fry foods and as an ingredient in margarine, breads, cookies, salad dressings and potato chips. Trans fat is more dangerous to your health than saturated fat. Trans fat is hard, and may quickly clog your arteries and increase your blood levels of total and LDL cholesterol, the bad cholesterol, and decrease HDL cholesterol, the good cholesterol. This can cause heart attack, stroke and death.
Risk of Obesity. The recommended daily intake of calories per day is 2,200 for most people, with lower calorie requirements for people who are sedentary and increased calorie requirements for people who are physically active. Increasing your caloric intake can increase your weight, especially if you do not increase your physical activity. Fast foods, including fried foods, snacks and sweetened beverages, are high in calories. Individual fast food and beverage items can exceed 1,000 calories each, and combined fast foods and beverages in meals can exceed 2,000 calories.
Increased Risk of Diabetes. Eating fast foods can increase your risk of insulin resistance, a condition in which your body cannot metabolize insulin properly. Insulin resistance can cause your body to produce more insulin, and over time you may not be able to produce sufficient amounts, leading to diabetes. Research by scientists at the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health at the University of Minnesota and published in «Lancet» in 2005 found that eating fast food increases your risk of weight gain, insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Freq
Nothing except the chemistry. Nothing useful in the food of the «fast restaurants» no. All of this food is processed repeatedly, and then dried, frozen or preserved. And at every stage of processing it added chemicals, which are by no means necessary for the human body. But the important vitamins and minerals in these foods is not at all that more harm health.
The proof is quite easy to get. Many times talked about the burgers that have lain on the shelf for several weeks while «meat» of the bread has not changed its color, texture and smell.
High-calorie fast food contains a lot of fat and not enough vitamins. Energy value of the «standard» quick lunch is only slightly behind the daily intake of calories. Three meals a day in fast food, and the year you get better at least 20 kg.In fast food added trans fats — they do not oxidize in storage for months and have nothing to do with vegetable oils that we use at home. Spenders accelerate the development of obesity — they get worse quickly absorbed and deposited under the skin. It is no accident, scientists call them «fat-killer.» In other studies, the excessive use contained in fast food fudovskoy fat and sugar leads to a real chemical dependence, similar to the drug. In support of this theory is the fact that fans of fast food is very difficult to return to a normal diet.Fast food contains a lot of preservatives, as well as various dietary supplements. What kind of supplements are used and in what quantities, often remains a mystery. The secret is and the dose, as well as the origin of the other food additives — flavor enhancers, stabilizers, emulsifiers, crosslinking agents, and so on and so forth. The taste and smell of hamburgers uent fast food consumption increases the risk and severity of insulin resistance.
4. Why do we eat fast food?
Conscious harm your body? It is unlikely that people are so sloppy in general. Explanation popularity of fast food, not only in the fact that the speed of life has increased so much that we cannot give yourself the opportunity to eat with feeling, really, with the arrangement of beautifully set table with dishes that are cooked and not warmed up from the semis.
«Fast food» has become a global industry, because it makes us addictive. This is not a global conspiracy to destroy mankind — it is a competition. That’s why every manufacturer of fast food has its own «secret ingredient» — the flavor and flavor, without which the other food we begin to seem fresh and tasteless. And other fast food cannot be repeated in the home, it is a chemical plant.
The term «pizza» first appeared «in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta in 997 AD, which claims that a tenant of certain property is to give the bishop of Gaeta ‘duodecim pizze’ [‘twelve pizzas’] every Christmas Day, and another twelve every Easter Sunday».
Pizza first made its appearance in the United States with the arrival of Italian immigrants in the late 19th century. This was certainly the case in cities with large Italian populations, such as New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia where pizza was first sold on the streets of Italian neighborhoods. In the late 19th century, for example, pizza was introduced by peddlers who walked up and down the streets with a metal washtub of pizzas on their heads, selling their wares at two cents a chew. This was the way pizza used to be sold in Naples, in copper cylindrical drums with false bottoms that were packed with charcoal from the oven to keep the pizzas hot. It was not long until small cafes and groceries began offering pizzas to their Italian-American communities.
The first printed reference to «pizza» served in the US is a 1904 article in the Boston Journal. Giovanni and Gennero Bruno came to America from Naples Italy in 1903 to introduce the Neopolitian Pizza. Vincent (Jimmy) Bruno (Giovanni’s son) went on to open the first Pizzaria in «The Loop» in Chicago at 421 S. Wabash Ave, the Yacht Club. Gennaro Lombardi opened a grocery store in 1897 which was later established as the «said» first pizzeria in America in 1905 with New York‘s issuance of the mercantile license. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza for the store to sell that same year. The price for a pizza was five cents but, since many people could not afford the cost of a whole pie, they would instead say how much they could pay and they were given a slice corresponding to the amount offered. In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi’s to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno’s. While the original Lombardi’s closed its doors in 1984, it was reopened in 1994 just down the street and is run by Lombardi’s grandson.
Pizza was brought to the Trenton area of New Jersey very early as well, with Joe’s Tomato Pies opening in 1910, followed soon by Papa’s Tomato Pies in 1912. In 1936, De Lorenzo’s Tomato Pies was opened. While Joe’s Tomato Pies has closed, both Papa’s and Delorenzo’s have been run by the same families since their openings and remain among the most popular pizzas in the area. Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Connecticut, was another early pizzeria which opened in 1925 (after the owner served pies from local carts and bakeries for 20–25 years) and is famous for its New Haven style Clam Pie. Frank Pepe’s nephew Sal Consiglio opened a competing store, Sally’s Apizza, on the other end of the block, in 1938. Both establishments are still run by descendants of the original family. When Sal died, over 2,000 people attended his wake, and the New York Times ran a half-page memoriam. The D’Amore family introduced pizza to Los Angeles in 1939.
Before the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited mostly to Italian immigrants and their descendants. The international breakthrough came after World War II. Allied troops occupying Italy, weary of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food. They discovered the pizzeria, and local bakers were hard-pressed to satisfy the demand from the soldiers. The American troops involved in the Italian campaign took their appreciation for the dish back home, touted by «veterans ranging from the lowliest private to Dwight D. Eisenhower.»
Ric Riccardo pioneered what became known as the «Chicago-style» deep dish pizza when, in 1943, he and Ike Sewell opened Pizzeria Uno in Chicago. In 1948, the first commercial pizza-pie mix — ‘Roman Pizza Mix‘ — was produced in Worcester, Mass., by Frank A. Fiorillo. The introduction of a 1957 broadcast on Canadian television documents the dawn of pizza’s North American success.
With pizza’s rising popularity chain restaurants moved in. Leading early pizza chains were Shakey’s Pizza, founded in 1954 in Sacramento, California, Pizza Hut, founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas, and Josey’s Pizza founded in Newnan, Georgia in 1943. Later entrant restaurant chains to the dine-in pizza market were Bertucci’s, Happy Joe’s, Monical’s Pizza, California Pizza Kitchen, Godfather’s Pizza, and Round Table Pizza.
Today, the American pizza business is dominated by companies that specialize in pizza delivery, such as Domino’s, Papa John’s Pizza, Giordano’s Pizza, Pizza Ranch, Mazzio’s, and Godfather’s Pizza. Pizza Hut has shifted its emphasis away from pizza parlors and toward home delivery. Another recent development is the take-and-bake pizzeria, such as Papa Murphy’s.
The hamburger, a ground beef patty between two slices of bread, was first created in America around 1890. Its origins remain unclear, with claims of its invention by Charlie Nagreen, Frank and Charles Menches, Oscar Weber Bilby, Louis Lasson and Fletcher David. White Castle traces the origin of the hamburger to Hamburg, Germany with its invention by Otto Kuase. However, it gained national recognition at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair when the New York Tribune namelessly attributed the hamburger as, «the innovation of a food vendor on the pike.» No conclusive claim has ever been made to end the dispute over the inventor of the hamburger with a variety of claims and evidence asserted since its creation.
Burgers were first popularized in the U.S. by German immigrants settling around Cincinnati. But the first hamburger wasn’t eaten between the halves of a bun until the early 1900s. The sandwich, meat of any kind placed between two slices of bread, has been with us since the 18th century – apparently, the sandwich was invented by a gambler named John Montagu, the fourth earl of Sandwich, who stuffed his meat between bread slices so that he could eat right at the gambling table. Officially, the first “hamburger” sandwich appeared at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri (which also happens to be the birthplace of the ice-cream cone).
As for the modern hamburger we eat today, it’s taken on many new forms to suit different people’s tastes. Vegetarians, for example, can enjoy hamburgers even though they don’t eat meat by getting patties that are made of soy protein or vegetables. A Welsh zoologist has even been working on a high-protein burger made from rat meat. And other scientists with tainted tastebuds have proposed a hamburger made from cotton!
If the popularity of the hotdog has gone down recently, the hamburger is still a big hit. Chopped meat now accounts for about 30% of meat sales. And even though in the late 1920s many American dictionaries still didn’t include a definition for the word hamburger, it’d be really hard to find a restaurant, diner, coffee shop or roadside stand that didn’t have hamburgers on the menu today. Burger joints have been popping up all over Europe, too, led by a British chain called Wimpy’s. And you’ll have no trouble in Paris finding a McDonald’s for «le cheeseburger.”
7. French Fries
In France and French-speaking countries, fried potatoes are formally pommes de terre frites, but more commonly pommes frites, patates frites, or simply frites. The word «aiguillettes» or allumettes is used when the chips are very small and thin.
Eating potatoes was promoted in France by Parmentier, but he did not mention fried potatoes in particular. Many Americans attribute the dish to France and offer as evidence a notation by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson. «Pommes de terre frites à cru, en petites tranches» («Potatoes deep-fried while raw, in small cuttings») in a manuscript in Thomas Jefferson’s hand (circa 1801–1809) and the recipe almost certainly comes from his French chef, Honoré Julien. In addition, from 1813 on, recipes for what can be described as French fries occur in popular American cookbooks. By the late 1850s, one of these uses the term French fried potatoes.
Frites are the main ingredient in the Canadian dish of Québécois descent known in both Canadian English and French as poutine, comprising fried potatoes covered with cheese curds and gravy, a dish with a growing number of variations.
8. Hot Dog
People of different countries have their own favourite food. Here are some facts about a thing that has become popular all over the world.
Hot dogs came to Russia from America. But its home country is Germany.
In Germany people called this food frankfurter, after Frankfurt, a German city. Frankfurters first appeared in the USA in the 1860. Americans called frankfurters «dachshund sausages» .A dachshund is a dog from Germany with a very long body and short legs. «Dachshund sausage» was a good name for frankfurter.
Dachshund sausages first became popular in New York, especially at baseball games. Their sellers kept them warm in hot-water tanks. As they walked up and down the rows of people, they shouted: «Get your dachshund sausages! Get your dachshund sausages! » People bought the sausages and put them on buns, special kind of bread.
One day in 1906 a newspaper cartoonist Tad Dorgan went to see a baseball game. When he saw the man selling the dachshund sausages, he got an idea for a cartoon. The next day at the newspaper office he drew a bun with a dachshund in it – not a dachshund sausage, but a dachshund. Dorgan didn’t know how to spell dachshund. So, under the cartoon, he wrote «Get your hot dogs!»
The cartoon was a sensation, and so was the new name. If you go to a baseball game today, you can still see sellers walking around with hot-water tanks. As they walk up and down the rows they shout: «Get your hot dogs here! Get your hot dogs! »
9. The results of research work
I made a research work.
I asked these questions to children (students from 5 to 10 forms) and grown-ups:
Do you like fast food?
How often do you eat fast food?
What kinds of fast food do you prefer?
Do you know about harm of fast food?
Now I want to show you the results of my work.
Do children like fast food?
How often do children eat fast food?
What kinds of fast food do children prefer?
Do children know about harm of fast food?
Do grown-ups like fast food?
How often do grown-ups eat fast food?
What kinds of fast food do grown-ups prefer?
Do grown-ups know about harm of fast food?
This research work should be interesting and useful for adults and children who like eating fast food. People should know about disadvantages and harm of fast food. It’s their choice: to eat or not to eat.
My work will have a continuation. Next time I want to tell how to make harm of fast food products less.
11. The list of used literature
P. Ch. Bragg. The book about healthy food. Recipes and menu// The Internet resource: http://www.koob.ru/bragg/recipes_menus
E. Schlosser. Nation of fast food.// The Internet resource: http://www.ediet.ru/sest-i-pohudet/naciya-fast-fuda
M.M. Bezrukih. Good Nutrition. – M.: Olma-Press,2002. – p. 1-3
O.V. Afanaseva, I.V. Miheeva. A new course of English language for Russian schools. – M.: Drofa, 2007. – p. 175-178.