Департамент Образования города Москвы
Северо-Западное окружное управление образования
Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение гимназия № 1538
Окружной конкурс проектных и исследовательских работ
Секция: иностранные языки (английский язык)
Тема исследования: «Нужна ли школьная форма?»
“Is It Necessary to Wear a School Uniform?”
Автор: Савина А.И., 6 «Б» класс
Руководитель работы: Кузнецова Татьяна Евгеньевна,
учитель английского языка
Москва 2013 г
Сontents1. Introduction 32. Arguments For and Against School Uniform 42.1. History of School Uniforms in Russia 52.2. School Uniforms in Foreign Countries 72.3. Adults’ Attitude to School Uniform 102.4. Our Teachers’ Opinion 12
2.5. Our Students’ Opinion 133. Conclusion 15References 16Supplement 17
1. IntroductionHow beautiful are girls and boys, dressed in elegant uniforms at the solemn line on September 1! And with what pleasure you put on white blouse, uniform jacket and skirt at the beginning of the school year. But a very little time passes, and you want to wear your favourite pair of jeans and a bright t-shirt. And you begin to wonder: «What is the reason of wearing a school uniform?» I think that I am not the only one, who asks this question. A lot of girls and boys think about it.So I have chosen the topic for my research «Is it necessary to wear a school uniform?» The goal is to prove that the school uniform is useful not only for the school administration and our parents, but it is also useful for us, the students.For the implementation of the objectives of the study it is necessary to solve the following tasks:1. Learn how supporters and opponents of school uniforms establish their position.2. Get acquainted with the history of school uniforms in Russia.3. Find out whether the students in other countries of the world wear school uniform.4. Examine the opinions of adults, including our parents and teachers, about the nessasity of school uniforms.5. Find out the opinions of students of our gymnasium about school uniforms.
Hypothesis of the study: There should be created such a school uniform, which could meet the requirements of the school administration, parents and to please students themselves. In my work I will use the following methods of research:1. Theoretical study.2. The observation.3. The questionnaire.4. Interviewing.5. Generalization.
2. Arguments For and Against School Uniform
Universal Internet-encyclopedia «Wikipedia» gives the following definition: «School uniform is a compulsory daily form of clothes for students during their stay at school and at the official school activities outside the school».There are also some arguments of supporters and opponents of school uniforms.
Arguments for school uniforms:
Many supporters of school uniform policies believe that uniforms keep students more focused on their education because they spend less time focused on who is wearing what outfit and what trends they and other students are wearing. Students who may normally wear inappropriate clothing to school will be prohibited from wearing provocative or revealing clothing, and can instead give attention to other aspects of their lives and education while at school. Uniforms can also create a sense of school spirit in students. Some people also feel that school uniforms create a sense of pride and commitment to students’ schools and fellow classmates, and these feelings can reinforce more dedication and better behavior while students are in school.
Some of the teasing, violence and social difficulty kids experience in schools comes from social status. This is most evident in the clothes kids wear. Some parents can’t afford the latest name-brand fashions. With school uniforms, however, each child wears similar clothing. Parents often wind up spending less money on school clothes because the uniforms are less expensive than many clothing brands.
School uniforms simplify the morning routine for students and parents. Students spend less time deciding what to wear because of the limited amount of choices available. Uniforms also make shopping for school clothes less time consuming and more convenient for parents.
School uniforms promote team spirit and unity. Instead of the divisions caused by the differences in students’ clothing, students experience a sense of community when they’re all wearing their «school colours.»
A school uniform makes it easier for the school authorities to recognize students belonging to their school. It also saves the school administrators from having to ‘police’ what the students wear. There or not for school.
Arguments against school uniforms:
Many opponents of school uniforms argue that wearing a uniform suppresses a student’s right of free expression of themselves. Some people believe that school uniforms are in conflict with this fundamental right because students lose their individual identity by not being allowed to express themselves through their appearance.A great number of pupils and their parents complain that school uniform doesn’t let students express their individualism. Without wearing a school uniform pupils can experiment with different clothes styles in order to find something that will suit them and their personas.
Moreover, pupils suffer from not being allowed to wear what they want to, which causes different sorts of stress.
A lot of low-income families cannot afford to buy uniform. Not wearing school uniform will help them deal with economic disadvantages.
It is difficult to disagree with the arguments of the supporters of school uniform but in the course of my research I am going find out if school uniforms really deprives students’ individuality.
2.1. History of School Uniforms in Russia
School uniform had been introduced in Russia in 1834. According to the orders of Emperor Nicholas I, the regulations on civil uniforms were developed. The introduction of uniform for students was due to the fact that educational institutions were state institutions. And the all civil servants in those days had to wear uniforms according to the «Schedule of ranks». Teachers in public schools (gymnasiums) wore uniform coat. Later uniform costumes for pupils were introduced.School costume distinguished schoolboys from those children who did not study. In those days only the children of nobles, the intelligentsia and the big Industrialists studied at school. They wore school uniform not only at school, but on the street, at home, during the celebrations and holidays. It was the subject of pride.The form of the students was a military-style: caps, shirts and coats, which were of different colour, emblems, buttons and logos. Caps were usually light blue with a black hood. The caps usually had a logo, which was represented by two silver branches of palm trees with the initials of the city, the number of high school and the letter «G». For example, «СПБ.3.Г», and for our high school would have been «М.1538.Г».Everyday uniform of the students consisted of a blue shirt with embossed silver buttons, a black leather belt with a silver buckle, where the same letters and numbers were engraved. The trousers and boots were black.. Teachers and officers strictly controlled the compliance with all rules of wearing the uniform.In tsarist Russia the style of school uniform was changed several times (in 1855, 1868, 1896 and 1913) according to the trends of fashion, but it always had a half military character.Uniform for girls was approved 63 years later, in 1896. In public high schools girls wore a brown dress with a high collar and an apron — black on school days and white on special days. On these days dress uniform was supplemented by the white turn-down collar and a straw hat.Until1917 students were obliged to wear school uniform. In 1918, after the Great October Socialist revolution there was a decree abolishing the wearing of school uniforms. In the first Soviet years it was not possible to provide all the children with school uniform.In 1948 the school uniform becomes compulsory again. Boys wore a military shirt with a collar and girls wore a brown woolen dress with a black or white apron. In 1962 boys began to wear grey woolen suits.In 1973 there was a new reform of school uniform. Costumes for boys were blue with aluminium buttons, cuffs and decorated with the emblem.School uniform for girls changed in 1984. They began to wear a blue skirt, a waist coat and a jacket.
The obligation of wearing «Soviet-style» school uniform did not cause enthusiasm among the students.The compulsory school uniform in Russia was abolished in the spring of 1992.At present there is no unified school uniforms in Russia, as it was in the USSR, but many schools have their own form, emphasizing the pupils belonging to one or another educational institution.In spite of the fact that now the school uniform is not necessary, and there are a lot of its opponents, on the streets of our city I can see more and more children dressed in school uniforms.2.2. School Uniforms in Foreign Countries
In some countries, like the U.K., Japan, Hong Kong, and several African countries, school uniforms are worn in almost every school. In other countries, like France and Germany, school uniforms are only worn in a few schools, or even none. However, in some of these countries opinions are changing. For example, both France and Germany have recently considered bringing school uniforms back, and in the U.S.A. the percentage of public schools in which children wear a uniform has increased from 11.8 in 1999-2000 to 17.5 in 2007-20083. On the other hand, some schools in the U.K. have got rid of school uniforms.
Believe it or not, school uniforms are absolutely not only clothes for students. They stand for the culture or beauty appreciation standard of a country. Wearing uniforms has become a trend in most countries in modern era. Let’s take a look at school uniforms in different nations. It will be interesting.
School Uniforms in England – The Most Orthodox
Style of England school uniforms is rather classic, simple and decent. Middle school students must wear orthodox western-style school uniforms. Boys wear orthodox western-style clothes, regular leather shoes and must wear necktie. Girls also wear western-style clothes, regular leather shoes and must wear bowtie. This classic clothing style unconsciously affects England students’ temperament and also sense of beauty.
School Uniforms in Japan are The Cutest
For students, school uniforms in Japan are not only symbols for a school, but also a symbol for the current fashion trends, even a crucial factor that affects students while choosing a school. Japanese school uniforms for girls originate in sailor suits. So they are also called as sailor suits or sailor uniforms. Anime elements are used on them. Then, Japanese school uniforms for boys are classic dark colored clothes with stand-up collar, being similar to Chinese tunic suits.
School Uniforms in Malaysia – The Most Conservative
Students in Malaysia obey rather strict rules. Girls’ dresses must be long to cover the knees. Shirts must cover the elbow.
School Uniforms in Australia – The Most Unified
Both boy and girl students in Australia are required to wear black leather shoes and white socks. They wear school uniforms all the time except the physical education, when they need to wear gym suits.
School Uniforms in United States – The Most Uncontrolled
Campus environment in United States is rather unconstrained. Students can decide by themselves whether they buy and wear school uniforms or not.
Many schools around the world choose to require that students wear school uniforms, which are generally conservative, plain-colored garments of the same style for all students of a particular gender. This practice began in Europe, and has been almost universally adopted in Britain. American schools have been less enthusiastic about uniforms, but many Catholic and private schools require them, and public schools in recent years have begun to adopt uniforms as a means of decreasing gang violence through identifiable clothing. In general, uniforms are designed to keep students attention away from style and clothing and bring the classroom focus back to academics.
2.3. Adults’ Attitude to School Uniform
At present, many gymnasiums, lyceumsand schools independently choose their own school uniform. And as this question totally depends on adults, I’ll try to find out their views on the school uniform. In July 2006, the newspaper «Komsomolskaya Pravda» held a «round table», where the issue of school uniforms was discussed. Attended by members of the State Duma, members of the Ministry of Education and Science, sociologists, psychologists, teachers, producers and designers of children’s clothing. During the preparation of the «round table» they held a survey among the readers of the newspaper. All network users who visited the site of the newspaper, were asked a few questions. The questions were simple: 1. Do we need school uniforms or not? The vast majority were in favor of uniforms in schools, it was more than 63%. Totally against uniforms were 22% of respondents. And 14.6% were indifferent to the question
2. Is there a difference between a student in uniform and a student in casual clothes? Almost 60% of respondents believe that school uniform disciplines, it does not allow to show the difference between the rich and the poor. 40% believe that the difference is not special. And social status does not depend on uniform.
3. How do parents and students imagine school uniform? The survey found that the majority (43%) believes that school uniforms should be functional. 38% believe that school uniforms should be strict, preferably with the logo of the school. And 19% of respondents believe that no matter what will the school uniform be, but it must be inexpensive and comfortable. 4. Were there any difficulties in buying school uniforms? 60% said they did not have any problems, but 37% said that they had serious difficulties.
The survey results show that most people think that school uniform is needed. The views of the speakers at the «round table» were also unanimous.
The Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Education and Science of the State Duma Valentina Ivanova: — I am a supporter of the introduction of the stylish uniform for students. Of course, this is not the return to the classic school uniforms of Soviet times. Although, in a crowd of passers-by of that time it was a pleasure to see schoolchildren in neat suits and aprons. Now the key criteria of Russian schoolchildren’s uniform in the XXI century — stylish, practicality and affordability. However I do not think we should impose uniform by federal law, as in the days of «war communism.» Let the parents and teachers discuss the issue of school uniforms in each school. And they should listen to the opinions of students themselves. Why does not every school get its own clothes? Let the kids wear it, emphasizing — I’m the student of this school, and I am proud of it!
The Deputy Director of the Department of State Policy in the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Natalia Tretiak: Uniform is a symbolic thing. It disciplines, gives a sense of team. A year ago, I myself made the decision together with the parent committee concerning the class, where my child studies on the question of introduction of school uniform. We have chosen the uniform.
But it may be that uniform can be inconvenient for someone or a child does not like to go dressed like everyone else. We should not limit the ability of children to study, depending on whether he has a uniform or not, whether he wants to wear it or not. Yes, there are requirement to uniforms fixed in the Internal Rules of the school. But its absence can not be the reason why the student is not allowed to study or expelled from school.
Elena Pakhomova, the Head of Social Studies of Russian Public Opinion Research Center: — 43 percent of parents with school children, believe that there should be a single state solution concerning uniforms for all schools in Russia. Note that this does not imply the introduction of a uniform standard of school uniform, as it was in Soviet times.
Natalia Savina, a teacher of the Moscow school № 1259: — For parents, school uniform solves a big problem — how to dress their child for school.The kids have to be told that school uniforms are the clothes for work and school is a place where they come to learn. We must make sure that they understand that the uniform is one thing, and the clothes for entertainment and sport is something different. The famous fashion designer Slava Zaitsev — Children should not be laxity. At school, they must be accustomed to the comfort. A suit is a means of communication. Uniforms are needed. It mobilizes, creates a feeling of comfort and protection, visually unites the people, makes it possible to be collected during the study.
2.4. Our Teachers’ Opinion
To find out the teachers’ opinion about school uniform in our school, I took a few interviews. And that’s what they told me. The Head Teacher Natalia Mukhina because of being busy was brief: — Uniform is needed. There is a huge difference between a student wearing uniform and a student in different clothes. Galina Snytko, Honored Teacher of the Russian Federation, a teacher of Russian language and literature: — School uniform is required. Firstly, it gives the student the status at school. Secondly, it disciplines. Thirdly, it emphasizes individuality. The success of a person’s life in the future depends on how he can wear a uniform or a business suit. Student in the uniform knows why he came to school and what he should do here, he keeps the school’s rules. . Zoya V. Pichugina, a chemistry teacher: — In my opinion, school uniform is needed. Firstly, it organizes the children, sets up the learning process. Secondly, when in the winter girls wear short skirts and tops it’s bad for their health. There will be plenty of colds and respiratory diseases. Casual clothes are for the second part of the day, to relax. I did not have an opportunity to learn our students parents’ opinion, but that’s what my mum said: — I am glad that school uniforms are back into our lives. Uniform is practical, neat, nice and stylish. The opinion of adults on school uniforms is nearly unanimous: the uniform is necessary, but it must be of high quality, fashionable, affordable, comfortable, and practical.
2.5. Our Students’ Attitude to School Uniforms
In order to know the opinion of students about school uniform, I conducted a survey. The questionnaire included three questions:
1. Do we need a school uniform?
2. Do you like our school’s uniform?
3. What would you change in our uniform?
17 students took part in the survey. 10 of them gave the affirmative answer to the first question.
The majority (12 students) like our school’s uniform.
In the answer to the third question nine students would change nothing in the uniform, four people would change the colour, one person would replace the trousers for jeans, one person would change everything and two students would cancel the uniform at all.
The survey results are presented in the diagrams:
Picture1. Do we need school uniform?
Picture 2. Do you like the school uniform?
Picture 3. What would you change in our school uniform?
Based on these results we can conclude that most of the students approve the school uniform. Moreover, they like it.
3.Conclusion The results of my research indicates that, despite the fact that there is no compulsory school uniforms at the present time in our country, many schools impose its own uniform.
A strict dress code at the school creates a business climate necessary for work. Uniform helps to discipline the students that is good for teachers. Uniform makes the lives of parents easier, because they do not have to think every morning, in what clothes to send a child to school. In addition, a school uniform policy helps to avoid competition between the children in the clothes, and thus saves parents’ money. School uniform helps a student to feel as a member of a group and a member of the school. The presence of a school uniform policy does not deprive the students’ opportunity to express their individuality in clothing. Girls choose blouses they like to match their school uniform. They can be of different styles (classic, sporty, romantic) and colours. Boys can express their individuality in the choice of shirts and ties. School uniform brings a sense of style, form the skill of wearing a business suit.
School uniform is a part of my life. In the morning it helps me to tune into academic way. At school, it helps me to sit at the desk correctly keep my posture, prevents break down at a desk. I feel elegant and collected. I like my school uniform! School uniform is needed!
Марина Балина, Алла Рудова. Размышления о школьной форме (по материалам произведений детской и автобиографической литературы). Журнал «Теория моды». 2008, № 8
Светлана Леонтьева. Советская школьная форма: канон и повседневность. Журнал «Теория моды». 2008, № 8
For the research “Is It Necessary to Wear a School Uniform?”
1. Do we need a school uniform?
2.Do you like our school’s uniform?
3.What would you change in our uniform?
Date: «____» ____________ 2012 Class________ Signature __________
 School Uniform in the World
 First Uniform in Russia